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 DE GRAFF ap resere ETO an-Li pote KONBA a sou TERITWA ADVESE yo

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MessageSujet: DE GRAFF ap resere ETO an-Li pote KONBA a sou TERITWA ADVESE yo   Jeu 11 Juin 2015 - 9:24

Mwen doute ke si se pa t MICHEL DE GRAFF ke MONDE DIPLOMATIQUE ta pibliye yon ATIK kon sa.

MONDE DIPLOMATIQUE se pwopriyete jounal Franse LE MONDE.
Mwen doute tou ke si ATIK sa a te an FRANSE ke MONDE DIPLOMATIQUE t ap pibliye.
Gen NEG ki kontinye ap Mennen yon KONBA ARYE-GAD pou lang FRANSE an ;san yo pa janm note ke AYITI se youn lan tre RA,RA PEYI ke preske TOTALITE ti AYISYEN yo se lan LEKOL yo aprann FRANSE ;yon lang ke yo ize kom LANG EDIAKASYON:



France’s misconceived ‘Marshall Plan’ for Haiti


Exclusive 26 May, by Michel Degraff


During his visit in Haiti on May 12, 2015, President François Hollande called Haiti a “great French-speaking nation”, then he launched a French-based “Marshall Plan for Education” in Haiti. The rationale for this plan suggests that Hollande is unfamiliar with Haiti’s identity and history, and with UNESCO’s research on language and education.

Such unfamiliarity undermines his offer to repay France’s debt to Haiti through this “Marshall Plan” — a financial and moral debt dating from 1825, when Haiti’s founders agreed, under military threat, to a protracted and debilitating plan to pay a ransom of 150 million francs for Haiti’s independence in 1804. This was one of many penalties for having won the only revolutionary war in history in which enslaved people overthrew a slave-based colonial system to create a free and independent nation. In the 19th century, as in the 21st, France sought to divide the “union [that] makes us strong.” In Haiti, class- and race-based rivalries are exacerbated by language policies that promote the interests of the Francophone and Francophile Haitian élites, but block the political agency and economic progress of the majority of Haitians who speak only Haitian Creole (Kreyòl).

Hollande’s Port-au-Prince speech suggests a lack of understanding of Haitian history, culture and language, and of best practices in education. He evoked principles reminiscent of Europe’s “civilizing mission” in the colonial and neo-colonial era: the objective, then and now, has been to subject Haiti to the interests of Europe.

Consider language and education: to repay France’s debt to Haiti, Hollande offered the French language and French educational resources as assets to be shared with Haiti (since French is a “world language” of “linguistic diversity”). Only in the last minute of his 22-minute speech did he mention a wish to “also defend Kreyòl” which “like any language, must be protected, preserved and spoken.”

This is puzzling, for we Haitians already speak Kreyòl in daily life, and the use of Kreyòl keeps expanding. What we now need is for Kreyòl to be used in formal venues of knowledge and power. Yet Holland failed to mention the opening that Kreyòl offers for the educational and political participation of all Haitians. Instead, he seems to believe that he honors Haitians in describing Haiti as a “great French-speaking country.” But who are the “great” French speakers in Haiti? Hollande exalts Haitian writer Dany Laferrière, a member of the Académie Française (AF), and Michaëlle Jean, leader of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF). But they, like other French-speaking Haitians, are statistical outliers vis-à-vis the majority of the population. For most Haitians, French is, in effect, a foreign language that excludes them from access to education or participatory citizenship.

Kreyòl is the language that bonds all Haitians

The Haitian Constitution of 1987 outlines what’s needed for a genuine “defense of Kreyòl”. Article 5 states that Kreyòl (not French) is the language that unites all Haitians; Article 32 states: “The first responsibility of the State ... is the education of the masses, which is the only way the country can be developed.” These articles have a straightforward logic: in order to develop Haiti, the best “Marshall Plan” for education must invest in educational resources that are accessible to the masses — resources in Kreyòl, not French.

A genuine “defense of Kreyòl” would have been France’s unconditional support for the new Haitian Creole Academy, whose mission, according to the Haitian Constitution, is to promote the standardization of Kreyòl and its use throughout Haitian society.

It is Kreyòl, not French, that is at the core of Haiti’s identity, and must be promoted and used as the essential engine of education and development. The misrepresentation of Haiti as a “great French-speaking country” only serves the interests of France and Haiti’s French speakers (relatively few in number), and contradicts the social and linguistic reality of the vast majority of monolingual Kreyòl speakers. It is noteworthy that the original “Marshall Plan” for rebuilding post-war Europe did not attempt to impose English as language of instruction throughout Europe.

It may seem ironic that the two illustrious Haitians that Hollande praised are both members of pro-French institutions, yet he seems unaware of the 33 members of the Haitian Creole Academy, mandated to promote Kreyòl (1).

Language as instrument of empire, 1492 to 2015

Hollande’s staunch promotion of Francophonie in Haiti contradicts pedagogical best practices advocated by UNESCO since the 1950s with The Use of Vernacular Languages in Education. This book favors the use of children’s native languages as the best instruments for their education. This echoes René Descartes’ promotion of French in the 17th century in his Discours sur la méthode where he advocated the use of the French “vernacular,” over Latin. Descartes’ rationale was straightforward: people learn best when educated in their native language. We Haitians must defend our Kreyòl as Descartes defended his French.

Hollande’s discourse is part of a European colonial policy that goes back to Columbus and 1492. It was also in that year that the Spaniard Antonio de Nebrija handed his first Gramática de lengua castellana to Queen Isabella, explaining that it would help Spain conquer a whole new world. British colonialists in 19th century India also used the imperial power of language. In 1835, Lord Macaulay decided that Indians could not “at present be educated by means of their mother-tongue”; the British must train  “interpreters between [the British settlers] and the millions whom [they] govern—a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in ... intellect.”

This imperial power of language is also the founding principle of the Francophonie as explained by one of Hollande’s predecessors, Valerie Giscard d’Estaing: “The vehicle of language ... contributes to economic dynamism on world markets. This is why the radiation of French culture in the world must be ceaselessly reinforced and extended ... Francophonia must be considered an essential element in our political policy” (2).

The description of Haiti as “a great French-speaking country” and the refusal to acknowledge that Haiti is a Kreyòl-speaking nation subordinates Haiti to France’s interests. This condemns Haiti to remain a country permanently in “development”, in service to France’s “economic dynamism” through “the vehicle of language” (think market for books and other French cultural products and businesses).

As it turns out, this linguistic problem also undermines education in “Francophone” Africa, thus contributing to underdevelopment there as well and to the massive exodus of African youth in search of better opportunities in France. The latter, according to the Francophonie movement, “shares” the French language with these impoverished African countries. This exodus causes a brain drain, which in turn worsens these countries’ underdevelopment, as it does in Haiti.

Local mother tongues
as languages of instruction

Like English and Spanish (two key international languages for Haiti given its geographical location), French must be adequately taught as a second language once the Kreyòl-speaking majority has a solid foundation in their mother tongue. Otherwise there will always be “remedial French” courses at university where most students, even after 13 years of French in school, still struggle to speak it. The fact that French is historically related to Kreyòl does not justify the imposition of French as language of instruction for Kreyòl-speaking children — children in France are no longer taught in Latin. The often deceptive similarities between French and Kreyòl require that French be taught with great attention to the large amount of cognates with distinct syntax and semantics. The teaching of French in Haiti also requires tact so that Haitian children are no longer harmed by the belief that Kreyòl is a corrupted version of French. Too often in Haiti, Kreyòl-speaking children, from kindergarten on, are asked to “express themselves” when they are caught speaking Kreyòl. Worse still, in too many schools, the use of Kreyòl is an offense punishable by a “symbol”, a visible sign that the child who is caught speaking Kreyòl must wear until it can be passed on to the next victim — to be caught and denouncd by a symbol-wearing child.

In the MIT-Haiti Initiative that I lead (see this video), STEM teachers have shared unequivocal evidence that classroom use of Kreyòl improves their teaching. The rote learning of French texts that few can understand has, rightly, been caricatured as the “zombification” of Haitian students, yet it affects the majority of schools (3).

In a “Mother Tongue Books” project, at the Lekòl Kominotè Matènwa in La Gonâve (4), children learn to read in Kreyòl and understand what they are reading (a rarity in Haiti).  And they learn to write their own books in Kreyòl with pride and dignity. These children are more successful in other academic disciplines, including French as a second language: last year they had 100% success in the official certificate exam given to 6th graders.

The Marshall Plan that Haiti most needs is one that could, in principle, make Haiti the Finland of the Caribbean, where all Haitians can access quality education in their mother tongue. When Finnish became the primary language of instruction, Finland acquired one of the best performing school systems in Europe.

Immoral Marshall Plan for Haiti

During his stop in the French colony of Guadeloupe on May 8, for the inauguration of the Memorial ACTe, a memorial to slavery, Hollande said he would repay the debt that France owes Haiti. It was assumed he was referring to Haiti’s independence ransom to France—a financial debt now valued at €17 billion, which put Haiti on its knees from independence. Yet even after its repayment, France continued to isolate Haiti. A French president did not visit Haiti until 2010, despite the wealth it had created for France and Europe.

So how will President Hollande repay France’s debt to Haiti? His May speech suggests the “payment” means exporting a French-based education for the interests of France, ignoring Haiti’s genuine needs. Already during President Martelly’s visit to the Élysée on October 31, 2014 (see this link), Hollande expressed concerns that Haiti was losing “what makes the identity of Haiti, the French language.” Hollande’s proposed solution is for Haitian schools to pursue “the most teaching in French, by the French when it is possible.”

But to insist on French as the language of education in Haiti is not just bad pedagogy; it is a violation of human rights. It also deepens the divide between rich and poor, and condemns the majority of Haitians to the academic failure and emotional distress that have imprisoned them for two centuries. France’s “Marshall Plan” for Haiti is immoral. What Haiti needs to successfully educate its entire population is teacher training in modern pedagogical techniques that use Kreyòl as a language of instruction, plus the massive production and widespread dissemination of high-quality educational materials in Kreyòl — as well.


http://mondediplo.com/blogs/france-s-misconceived-marshall-plan-for-haiti
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MessageSujet: Re: DE GRAFF ap resere ETO an-Li pote KONBA a sou TERITWA ADVESE yo   Jeu 18 Juin 2015 - 9:31

Yon ATIK ke MICHEL DEGRAFF ekri sou NOUVELLISTE.Mwen te tande bagay sa a ke DESSALINES pa t renmen le MOUN ap pale FRANSE lan prezans li.
Mwen te li yon kote deja ke DESSALINES te panse ke lang FRANSE an se te yon ENSTRIMAN pou FRANSE yo ta ka kontinye PREZANS yo ann AYITI ;tankou jounen jodi an nou ka rele "CHENN LAN TET";DEGRAFF bay REFERANS.
Se AYE ,LENOUVELLISTE pibliye ATIK lan:




YON NÒT SOU DANY LAFERRIÈRE NAN ACADÉMIE FRANÇAISE: Defann franse pa vle di sakrifye kreyòl; kreyòl se nannan istwa nou, idantite nou, dwa nou, devlòpman nou
 il y a 1 jours  Publié le 17 juin 2015

       
           
           
             Mwen gen plizyè bon zanmi ak lòt konesans k ap plede mande m pou ki sa mwen te “atake” Dany Laferrière ki fèk antre nan pi gwo enstitisyon k ap defann lang franse a—Académie française (AF).  Se sou paj Facebook mwen ke mwen te kritike sèten pawòl ke Laferrière te di nan yon entèvyou ke li te bay nan televizyon TV5 ak jounal Le Monde nan dat 24 me 2015 (http://on.fb.me/1IAkSGE) epi nan diskou li tè jou li te antre nan AF, nan dat 28 me 2015 (http://on.fb.me/1KoknyL).  Apre sa,  anpil moun ap mande m si se paske mwen kont franse, ki fè m ap kritike Dany Laferrière. M espere ke ti nòt sa a pral reponn kesyon sa yo pandan m ap esplike rezon ki fè mwen te oblije kritike sèten pawòl Dany Laferrière sou lang nan peyi d Ayiti.  Rezon sa yo antre nan nannan travay mwen kòm lengwis, kòm edikatè e kòm akademisyen nan Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen.

An patan, fòk nou rekonèt ke lang pa nan goumen ak lang.  Se moun ki nan goumen ak moun. E moun sèvi ak lang ANSANM AK LIV kòm zam pou yo goumen pou pouvwa (http://on.fb.me/1JDHNRn).  Se kon sa Antonio de Nebrija, youn nan premye lengwis ki te fè rechèch sou lang panyòl la, te ekri yon gramè panyòl kòm kado pou Izabèl ki te Rèn Espay.  An 1492, Nebrija te esplike Rèn Izabèl ki jan lang panyòl la ansanm ak gramè panyòl li a te ka sèvi kòm zam pou ede Espay konkeri pèp amerendyen yo.  Se kon sa lang ak liv toujou sèvi kòm zam pou kolonizasyon.  E se menm penpenp lan pou mouvman Frankofoni a tou ki sèvi ak AF epi Òganizasyon Entènasyonal Frankofoni (OIF) pou Lafrans ka vale teren sou plan ekonomik ak politik.  Ki fè, tout konba lengwistik se konba politik.  Kidonk, se moun ki plis bezwen pwoteksyon pou dwa lengwistik yo .

Kòm lengwis e kòm pwofesè, mwen konnen aklè jan gen bèl avantaj nan pale plizyè lang e nan chache konesans sou plizyè lang.  Se nan fouye zo nan kalalou sou franse, ilandè, angle, elatriye, ke mwen vin dekouvri richès lang natif-natal mwen ki se kreyòl.  E poutan kreyòl se yon lang yo te aprann mwen meprize lè m te ti katkat sou ban lekòl ann Ayiti, nan Sen Lwi Gonzag, kote Frè Raphaël Berrou (yon blan franse) te konn di nou kreyòl pa fouti mennen nou pi lwen ke Lagonav.  Epi frè Sen Lwi yo te fè nou aprann pa kè powèm Carl Brouard ki di ke pawòl kreyòl sa a se yon pawòl wòwòt paske Ayiti pa fouti devlope ak kreyòl la.  Brouard te mande pou paran timoun yo pa pale kreyòl ak timoun yo:

“La question du créole frise le ridicule. Je vous le demande quel rayonnement Haïti peut-elle tirer de son créole? ...  Le créole ne sera jamais qu’un patois, comme le bigorrois. Il n’y a rien à faire. ...  Parents, ne parlez jamais créole à vos enfants. Le français, c’est une habitude ! Corrigez impitoyablement les créolismes!” (Histoire de la littérature haïtienne illustrée par les textes, Tome 3, Raphaël Berrou & Pradel Pompilus, Éditions Caraïbes, 1978).

E paran ki pale kreyòl sèlman yo, ki lang pou yo pale ak timoun yo?  Genlè fòk yo pe bouch yo nèt!  Ki sa nou wè nan pawòl sa yo?  Se pa franse k ap atake kreyòl.  Se vye prejije moun ki damou franse k ap kraze moral timoun sa yo ki leve kote se plis kreyòl ki pale—sa se majorite popilasyon an.  An tou ka, defann franse pa dwe sakrifye kreyòl.  Ann Ayiti, nou pa fouti bati yon frankofoni ki solid anvan nou rive bati, kòm fondasyon, yon kreyolofoni ki pi solid toujou.  Se kreyolofoni sa a ki pou ouvri wout konesans pou tout popilasyon an---ata konesans sou lang tankou franse, angle ak panyòl.   Se ak yon kreyolofoni ki solid ke nou ka kreye yon lekòl tèt an wo pou yon peyi tèt an wo kote timoun yo ka rive maton nan TOU sa y ap aprann.

Kounyea, men 6 rezon ki fè mwen menm, kòm lengwis k ap travay sou lang ak edikasyon pou devlòpman ann Ayiti, m oblije kritike diskou Dany Laferrière fè nan AF nan dat 28 me 2015.  M oblije fè kritik sa a malgre tout respè ak admirasyon mwen gen pou Laferrière.  Se respè ak admirasyon sa a ki motive m pou m esprime m aklè sou pwoblèm ke mwen wè nan diskou li a.  Kòm Laferrière se yon konpatriyòt ki renmen Ayiti, m espere l ap ka pran remak sa yo an konsiderasyon pou pwochen diskou li yo.

1. GWO POUVWA TOUJOU MAKONNEN AK GWO RESPONSABILITE

Jan pawòl la di ann angle: “With great powers comes great responsibility”.   Wi, gwo pouvwa toujou makonnen ak gwo responsabilite.  Laferrière antre ak anpil siksè, ki byen merite, nan Académie française (AF).  Sa se yon gran onè ki merite pou nou mete chapo nou byen ba devan yon Laferrière ki p ap janm mouri.   AF se yon kokennchenn enstitisyon ki la depi 17èm syèk pou defann lang franse ansanm ak enterè Lafrans.  Misyon AF se tankou misyon Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) kote nou jwenn lidèchip Michaëlle Jean kòm Sekretè Jeneral OIF.  

Defann lang franse a se gwo responsabilite tout bon vre pou Ayisyen natif-natal sa yo, sitou lè nou reyalize ke se sèlman yon ti zuit pousantaj Ayisyen ki pale franse byen: pa gen plis pase 5% popilasyon an ki rive maton nan franse.  E se ti gwoup frankofòn sa a, ansanm ak yon lòt ti gwoup ki anglofòn tou, k ap kontwole pifò richès ak pouvwa nan peyi a, alòske pifò Ayisyen pale kreyòl sèlman e se lang kreyòl la ke 9 milyon Ayisyen sa yo bezwen kòm bon jan zouti ki pou louvri wout konesans pou yo, ata konesans sou lòt lang tankou franse, angle, panyòl, eks.  E se konesans sa yo (sitou konesans nan syans, matematik ak divès pwofesyon) ki ka ede peyi a devlope.  

Ki fè, kesyon lang lan dwe antre nan nannan pwojè ki pou devlope Ayiti cheri nou an, sitou lè nou konsidere bèl chans ke nou genyen gras a yon lang ke 100% Ayisyen pale alèz.  Sa se yon gwo avantaj ki dwe ede nou bati yon sistèm edikasyon pou yon nasyon ki djanm.  Malerezman, ajanda neyo-kolonyal (“mission civilisatrice”) Lafrans ansanm ak baryè ant klas sosyal ann Ayiti fè nou pa ko janm rive pwofite de bèl avantaj lengwistik sa a.  Se pou sa kesyon lang ann Ayiti se yon dosye ki mennen gwo responsabilite.

2. ACADÉMIE FRANÇAISE SE POU DEFANS LAFRANS.  SE PA POU DEFANS AYITI.

Yon fwa ke Dany Laferrière rantre kòm nouvo akademisyen nan AF, li vin tounen yon zouti nan men Lafrans.  Lafrans, pou pwòp enterè ekonomik ak politik pa li, toujou vle enpoze franse kòm lang prensipal pou fè lekòl ann Ayiti ak nan lòt peyi ke OIF vle konsidere kòm peyi “frankofòn” menm si pifò moun nan peyi sa yo pa pale franse. Lè Prezidan Hollande te kontre ak Prezidan Martelly an Frans nan dat 31 oktòb 2014, li te mande Martelly pou Ayiti pa pèdi idantite l kòm peyi frankofòn (http://bit.ly/1E5DKoP).  Prezidan Hollande vle enpoze franse kòm lang nan lekòl ann Ayiti.  Epi tou, li mande pou se pwofesè fransè ki pou vin anseye franse ann Ayiti.  Martelly li menm te pwopoze pou se pwofesè franse ki deja pran retrèt yo (ki vle di: pwofesè ki fin granmoun) ki pou vin anseye ann Ayiti pou fòme “nouvo Ayisyen ke peyi a bezwen”.  Ala traka!  Pwopozisyon sa yo pa fouti sèvi enterè Ayiti. Y ap sèvi enterè Lafrans ansanm ak enterè ti gwoup Ayisyen sa yo ki deja pale franse e ki gen pouvwa nan men yo.  E se sa ke Giscard d’Estaing (Prezidan Lafrans, 1974–1981) te esplike kòm objektif mouvman frankofoni a: mouvman sa a se pou avanse enterè politik ak enterè ekonomik Lafrans (http://on.fb.me/1ItNXk1).  

3. NOU PA DWE JANM BLIYE KE AYITI SE YON PEYI KOTE TOUT MOUN PALE KREYÒL A KOTE YON TI ZUIT POUSANTAJ KI PALE FRANSE TOU  

Nan premye diskou Laferrière bay nan batiman Académie française (AF), nan dat 28 me 2015, li pale kòm si Ayiti se yon peyi ki frankofòn—kote TOUT MOUN PALE FRANSE.  Nan diskou li a, li pa di yon mo sou egzistans kreyòl ann Ayiti.  Men, li di:  “.... après une effroyable guerre coloniale, on a mis la France esclavagiste d’alors à la porte tout en GARDANT SA LANGUE.”  Sa vle di: Apre zansèt nou yo mete Lafrans deyò, yon Lafrans ki te kenbe zansèt nou yo nan esklavaj, peyi d Ayiti kenbe lang franse a.  Wi, se vre: ann Ayiti, nou te kenbe lang franse a kòm eritaj ki soti nan istwa peyi a kòm ansyen koloni Lafrans.  Men, nan diskou li a, Laferrière pa esplike ki kantite ak ki kalite Ayisyen ki kenbe lang franse a.  Moun sa yo ki t ap koute diskou Laferrière a e ki pa konn Ayiti pa ta janm konnen ke Ayiti se yon peyi kote se sèlman yon ti gwoup tou zuit ki pale franse alòske tout moun ann Ayiti pale kreyòl.  Yo pa t ap janm konnen ke kreyòl se sèl lang ki “simante tout Ayisyen ansanm” e se yon lang ki ofisyèl ann Ayiti tou, ansanm ak franse (selon atik 5 Konstitisyon 1987 la).  Ata Napoleon, depi nan 18èm syèk, te rekonèt ke pifò moun nan koloni Sen Domeng, se kreyòl yo te pale.  Lè li te voye Komisè Sonthonax vin pwoklame abolisyon esklavaj nan Sen Domeng an 1793 (kòm estrateji pou bloke revolisyon  zansèt nou yo), li te tradui pwoklamasyon li yo an kreyòl pou tout moun te ka konprann.  Kreyòl pale, kreyòl konprann.  Men, 222 ane apre Napoleon te fè ekri pwoklamasyon li yo an kreyòl, Laferrière nan AF rive pale de Ayiti kòm si se franse sèlman ke zansèt nou yo te kenbe kòm lang.

An tou ka, majorite Ayisyen pa ta fouti konprann diskou an franse Dany Laferrière a.  E yo pa t ap janm konnen non plis ke Laferrière, an 1999, se lang kreyòl la li t ap defann, lè li te ekri:  

“On n’est chez soi que dans sa langue maternelle et dans son accent. Il y a des choses que je ne saurais dire qu’en créole. ... si vous ne pouvez comprendre comment on dit ‘mwen renmen ou, mwen ta renmen pale avè ou, karese w, gen tout kè m pou ou’. Si vous ne pouvez pas comprendre cela, il y a quelque chose qui manque. ... C’est comme si c’est une moitié de moi-même qui vous parlait, la moitié francophone. C’est pour cela que dans le grand combat au Québec sur la langue, je suis toujours très distant sur la langue française”  

4.  JEAN-JACQUES DESSALINES TOU T AP DEFANN LANG KREYÒL LA E LI TE KONNEN KE LAFRANS KA SÈVI AK LANG FRANSE A POU METE CHENN NAN LESPRI NOU

Laferrière fè yon erè grav lè li di ke ewo endepandans nou yo pa te gen anyen kont franse: “Ces guerriers n’avaient rien contre une langue qui parlait parfois de révolution, souvent de liberté.”  Li pale de zansèt nou you (“ces guerriers”) kòm si yo (tout?) te aksepte franse kòm lang pou revolisyon ak libète.  E poutan, nou gen bon jan dokimantasyon ki montre jan Dessalines te pito pale kreyòl olye pou li pale franse.  Dessalines se youn nan pi gran gèrye nou yo.  Dessalines se te Legba nou: se li ki te louvri wout libète ann Ayiti kòm peyi endepandan.  Legba sa a te kont senbòl ke lang franse a te reprezante pou zansèt nou yo. Depi nan 18èm syèk, Dessalines te deja konnen ke se ak franse ke Lafrans t a pral eseye kenbe lespri nou nan chenn esklavaj.  Li te kondane jan blan franse yo te konn sèvi ak lang franse a pou yo twonpe popilasyon Sen Domeng lan. Men sa li te di nan Deklarasyon Endepandans nou an:  “notre crédulité et notre indulgence, vaincu non par les armées françaises, mais par la piteuse éloquence des proclamations de leurs agents”.  Epi tou, Dessalines te konn mande: “Nou gen lang pa nou.  Pou ki sa pou nou vle lang lòt nasyon?”  Nou jwenn dènye pawòl sa a kouche sou papye nan rapò ki soti dirèk anba plim yon blan franse, Michel Etienne Descourtilz, ki t ap obsève Dessalines pandan batay endepandans yo e ki te pibliye yon liv an 1809 ki rele “Voyages d’un naturaliste à Saint-Domingue” (http://bit.ly/1TafQ6A).  Epi tou, te gen sekretè Dessalines, Boisrond Tonnerre, ki te esplike jan mo “franse” a t  ap mete peyi a nan tenèb paske blan franse yo te maton nan sèvi ak lang franse pou yo te trayi zansèt nou yo (http://on.fb.me/1FQbPdB).

Rezon ki fè Boisrond-Tonnerre te ekri pwoklamasyon endepandans yo an franse se paske Dessalines ak ekip li te vle mete blan franse ak lemonn antye sou pinga yo: Pinga yo janm vin eseye konkeri Ayiti ankò. Se te “Libète oswa Lanmò...”  pou tout tan gen tan. Zansèt sa yo pa te nan okenn tete lang ak Lafrans. Men, yo te ekri an franse pou yo te eseye fè lemonn antye konprann mesaj “Libète oswa Lanmò” a.  Se analiz sa a nou jwenn pami plizyè istoryen (egzanp: liv Deborah Jenson ki rele “Beyond the slave narratives” bit.ly 1KUhKmg).

5. MWEN TOU, KÒM LENGWIS, KÒM EDIKATÈ E KÒM AKADEMISYEN NAN AKADEMI KREYÒL AYISYEN AN, M OBLIJE DEFANN LANG KREYÒL LA MENM SI MWEN PA GEN ANYEN NI KONT FRANSE NI KONT OKENN LANG

Nou wè aklè ke Dessalines te respekte lang kreyòl li a.  Men, li te dakò pou li te sèvi ak lang franse a kòm zouti pou li patisipe nan zafè entènasyonal—ak tout diyite li, san li pa sakrifye istorik ak idantite nasyon ke li te fèk kreye a.  Ki fè, Dessalines PA te rayi lang franse kòm zouti pou li regle zafè peyi li.   Se menm jan ke mwen menm, kòm lengwis, kòm anseyan e  kòm aktivis k ap goumen pou peyi a ka devlope, mwen pa rayi lang franse ditou.  Mwen pa rayi okenn lang.  O kontrè, mwen panse ke se lang tankou franse, angle, panyòl, elatriye, ki enpòtan pou timoun ann Ayiti aprann.  Epi, kòm lengwis e kòm pwofesè, mwen konnen ke se kòm 2èm lang ke pifò timoun sa yo ka pi byen aprann franse (ansanm ak lòt lang ki pa kreyòl) paske se sèlman kreyòl ke timoun sa yo pale e ke yo tande nan fanmi yo, nan kominote yo—tou patou nan lavi tou lè jou.

Se opinyon pwofesyonèl mwen, apre anpil etid ansanm ak rechèch sou teren, ke fòk timoun yo ta jwenn opòtinite pou yo aprann kèlkeswa lang ke yo ta renmen aprann, swa pou devlòpman pèsonèl yo, swa pou avansman ekonomik yo.  Men, se kreyòl la, KÒM SÈL LANG MATÈNÈL PIFÒ TIMOUN YO, ki pou sèvi kòm fondasyon solid ki pou bay timoun sa yo chapant ki pral pèmèt yo aprann syans, matematik ak lòt lang tankou franse, angle, eks. (https://youtu.be/CU4NuFcK8D0 , https://youtu.be/HJ6kx7JX24U , http://videohall.com/p/519 ).

6.  MWEN RAYI BARYÈ LANG K AP PLEDE BARE WOUT KONESANS POU PIFÒ AYISYEN

Sa mwen rayi tout bon vre se sa franse souvan (twò souvan!) reprezante ann Ayiti kòm zouti esklizyon.  Mwen rayi jan sèten swadizan “entelektyèl”, swadizan “edikatè” epi swadizan “lidè” ap plede sèvi ak franse pou mete baryè sou wout konesans ak sou wout pouvwa pou pèp la.  Si nou vle pou Ayiti devlope, sa pa ka kontinye kon sa.   Ki fè fòk nou kritike kèlkeswa zotobre k ap plede di pawòl k ap sèvi pou bare wout konesans pou pifò popilasyon ann Ayiti.  Sa popilasyon an bezwen se defans kreyòl la kòm zouti ki pou bay yo konesans san baryè.

Ki fè, kòm Ayisyen konsekan, fòk nou defann kreyòl la pou enterè peyi a, menm si nou ka apresye bèlte zèv Laferrière ak lòt gwo ekriven frankofòn (oswa anglofòn) nou yo.  NOU PA FOUTI AKSEPTE POU DEFANS FRANSE VIN METE BARYÈ SOU WOUT MOUN KI PALE KREYÒL SÈLMAN YO.  NOU PA FOUTI AKSEPTE POU DEFANS FRANSE VIN SAKRIFYE LANG, ISTWA, IDANTITE AK DEVLÒPMAN PEYI NOU.

Selon Amin Maalouf (yon lòt Akademisyen nan AF), fòk Dany Laferrière ansanm ak tout lòt Akademisyen nan AF ede tout moun jwenn plas yo nan sivilizasyon mondyal k ap develop a, san okenn nan nou pa bezwen sakrifye lang nou, kilti nou, istwa nasyon nou, diyite nou.  Fòk AF goumen pou okenn nan nou pa santi ke n ap deperi anba esplwatasyon, abi, esklizyon oswa prejije.  

Men sa Maalouf di, an franse:

“Comment persuader nos contemporains, et notamment nos compatriotes, qu’ils ont toute leur place au sein de la civilisation globale qui se construit, sans qu’ils aient à sacrifier leur langue, leur culture, leur trajectoire propre, ni leur dignité ? Comment leur éviter de se sentir dépossédés, envahis, exclus ou marginalisés?”

An final, men sa m ap mande tout moun pandan n ap selebre konpatriyòt imòtèl nou, Dany Laferrière, nan fyète ak lajwa:   An nou pa bliye gen 9 milyon Ayisyen, pou pi piti, ki toujou ap chache jwenn yon ti mòso nan konesans ak pouvwa ke gwo lidè ak gwo entelektyèl nou yo deja genyen .  Nèf milyon Aysyen sa yo, yo menm tou ta renmen jwenn menm opòtinite ki te bay Laferrière kalite konesans ke li genyen nan tèt li jounen jodi a.  Se sa ki fè kreyòl la enpòtan: POU TIMOUN YO KA SÈVI AK LANG MATÈNÈL YO KÒM SA DWA POU YO VIN MATON NAN NENPÒT KI DISIPLIN.  KON SA, Y AP KA SÈVI AK RICHÈS LENGWISTIK AK KILTIRÈL YO POU YO KREYE PLIS RICHÈS POU TÈT YO AK POU PEYI YO.

GWO POUVWA TOUJOU MAKONNEN AK GWO RESPONSABILITE...

Michel DeGraff se pwofesè lengwistik nan MIT : http://mit.edu/degraff.  Li se yon manm fondatè Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen.  L ap dirije Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti a ki se yon pwojè kote lang kreyòl ak teknoloji ap sèvi pou amelyore aksè ak kalite nan edikasyon syans ak matematik ann Ayiti.  Epi tou, li se yon manm Komisyon Nasyonal pou Refòm Kourikoulòm nan Ministè Edikasyon Nasyonal ak Fòmasyon Pwofesyonèl.  Nou ka jwenn plis detay nan sit sa yo : http://videohall.com/p/519 and http://haiti.mit.edu

   

AUTEUR  





Pwofesè Michel DeGraff Depatman Lengwistik ak Filozofi Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen Komisyon Nasyonal pou Refòm Kourikoulòm, Ministè Edikasyon Nasyonal ak Fòmasyon Pwofesyonèl
 

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MessageSujet: Re: DE GRAFF ap resere ETO an-Li pote KONBA a sou TERITWA ADVESE yo   Jeu 18 Juin 2015 - 9:40

Mwen blije SOULIYE sa MICHEL DE GRAFF di ki jan DESSALINES ,menm BOISROND TONNERRE te panse de LANG FRANSE an.
Se pa bagay ke FIC yo t ap jan kite nou konnen ,
SE EKSTRAWODINE:

4. JEAN-JACQUES DESSALINES TOU T AP DEFANN LANG KREYÒL LA E LI TE KONNEN KE LAFRANS KA SÈVI AK LANG FRANSE A POU METE CHENN NAN LESPRI NOU

Laferrière fè yon erè grav lè li di ke ewo endepandans nou yo pa te gen anyen kont franse: “Ces guerriers n’avaient rien contre une langue qui parlait parfois de révolution, souvent de liberté.” Li pale de zansèt nou you (“ces guerriers”) kòm si yo (tout?) te aksepte franse kòm lang pou revolisyon ak libète. E poutan, nou gen bon jan dokimantasyon ki montre jan Dessalines te pito pale kreyòl olye pou li pale franse. Dessalines se youn nan pi gran gèrye nou yo. Dessalines se te Legba nou: se li ki te louvri wout libète ann Ayiti kòm peyi endepandan. Legba sa a te kont senbòl ke lang franse a te reprezante pou zansèt nou yo. Depi nan 18èm syèk, Dessalines te deja konnen ke se ak franse ke Lafrans t a pral eseye kenbe lespri nou nan chenn esklavaj. Li te kondane jan blan franse yo te konn sèvi ak lang franse a pou yo twonpe popilasyon Sen Domeng lan. Men sa li te di nan Deklarasyon Endepandans nou an: “notre crédulité et notre indulgence, vaincu non par les armées françaises, mais par la piteuse éloquence des proclamations de leurs agents”. Epi tou, Dessalines te konn mande: “Nou gen lang pa nou. Pou ki sa pou nou vle lang lòt nasyon?” Nou jwenn dènye pawòl sa a kouche sou papye nan rapò ki soti dirèk anba plim yon blan franse, Michel Etienne Descourtilz, ki t ap obsève Dessalines pandan batay endepandans yo e ki te pibliye yon liv an 1809 ki rele “Voyages d’un naturaliste à Saint-Domingue” (http://bit.ly/1TafQ6A). Epi tou, te gen sekretè Dessalines, Boisrond Tonnerre, ki te esplike jan mo “franse” a t ap mete peyi a nan tenèb paske blan franse yo te maton nan sèvi ak lang franse pou yo te trayi zansèt nou yo (http://on.fb.me/1FQbPdB).

Rezon ki fè Boisrond-Tonnerre te ekri pwoklamasyon endepandans yo an franse se paske Dessalines ak ekip li te vle mete blan franse ak lemonn antye sou pinga yo: Pinga yo janm vin eseye konkeri Ayiti ankò. Se te “Libète oswa Lanmò...” pou tout tan gen tan. Zansèt sa yo pa te nan okenn tete lang ak Lafrans. Men, yo te ekri an franse pou yo te eseye fè lemonn antye konprann mesaj “Libète oswa Lanmò” a. Se analiz sa a nou jwenn pami plizyè istoryen (egzanp: liv Deborah Jenson ki rele “Beyond the slave narratives” bit.ly 1KUhKmg).
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MessageSujet: Re: DE GRAFF ap resere ETO an-Li pote KONBA a sou TERITWA ADVESE yo   Jeu 18 Juin 2015 - 21:54

Se ekstreman FASINAN jan DESCOURTILZ dekri ATITID ,ou byen diferan ATITID ke TOUSEN ak DESSALINES te genyen ak LANG yo ;FRANSE ak KREYOL.

DESCOURTILZ ki te kotwaye mesye yo di le TOUSEN t ap pale ak MOUN tankou l se FRANSE li te vle pale.
EPOK sa a FRANSE lan rejyon "ILE DE FRANCE" yo ,tankou KOMISE yo te komanse ap rantre.

DESCOURTILZ di se pa bon FRANSE ke TOUSEN t ap pale ;se te FRANSE anba BOUCH ,paske TOUSEN te gen yon MEMWA EKSTRAWODINE.
Misye di le TOUSEN t ap pale ak BLAN tankou l, li pa t vle pale KREYOL ke yo te rele "LE PATOIS DU PAYS".Misye di tou se ak yo selman ke TOUSEN te pale ou vle pale FRANSE

Kanta DESSALINES limenm ;li te refize pale FRANSE ;yon lang ke l pa t konnen ni an PENT ni an PENTI .
Si yon MOUN te adrese DESSAINES an FRANSE ;misye di MOUN lan kareman "PALE LANG A WOU".
Eske LANG FRANSE an t ap siviv ann AYITI ,si DESSALINES pa t mouri?
Se yon kesyon ki merite poze.
DESCOURTILZ dekri kek KONVESASYON li te gen ak DESSALINES ;tout an KREYOL.
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MessageSujet: Re: DE GRAFF ap resere ETO an-Li pote KONBA a sou TERITWA ADVESE yo   Jeu 18 Juin 2015 - 22:14

Men youn nan zouti enpòtan ekip Degraff lan fenk ponn la a.

MWEN BAY BÈL TRAVAY SA A 10 sou 10 - e noumenm?

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MessageSujet: Re: DE GRAFF ap resere ETO an-Li pote KONBA a sou TERITWA ADVESE yo   Ven 19 Juin 2015 - 20:55


Mèsi pou bèl leson lengwistik ak istwa lang Kreyòl la ki mare ak tout istwa peyi an. Mwen swete ke pwogrè ki deja anwout yo kontinye pou fè peyi nou an devlope an yon gran nasyon.
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MessageSujet: Re: DE GRAFF ap resere ETO an-Li pote KONBA a sou TERITWA ADVESE yo   Sam 20 Juin 2015 - 8:05

Wi ,BON BAGAY ,TRAVAY ke dr DEGRAFF ap fe sou KREYOL.

Pou bagay ke NEG kontinye ap di ke FRANSE se youn lan LANG AYITI yo ;se LA MAYOT ,se vann CHAT LAN MAKOUT.
Te gen kek grenn NEG ki te ka pale FRANSE ;se kek grenn NEG.
Se tankou an FRANS ,jiske lan 17yem SYEK te gen kek NEG ki te ka pale LATEN pou di ke youn lan LANG la FRANS yo te LATEN;E te gen plis MOUN an FRANS ki te ka pale LATEN ke te gen MOUN ki te ka pale FRANSE lan SENDOMENG.

Kanta DESSALINES limenm misye te gen yon RAYISMAN pou LANG lan;li pa t vle tande MOUN pale FRANSE ,lan prezans li.

DESCOURTILZ dekri yon rankont (li te la) ant yon "CREOLE" (se kon sa yo te dekri BLAN ki te fet lan KOLONI an);DESCOURTILZ di misye se te pitit yon GRAN PLANTE lan zon GONAYIV lan.
DESCOURTILZ di ke MISYE t ap eseye adrese DESSALINES an FRANSE .
DESCOURTILZ di ke DESSALINES pran misye ap GRAP.

DESSALINES di misye ke "NOU GEN LANG NOU ,POUKI SA N AP IZE LANG ZOT"

Ka ki pi REMAKAB se BOISROND TONNERRE.Misye te konn ekri FRANSE ;Kom nou konnen se li ki te ekri DEKLARASYON ENDEPANDANS lan ,an FRANSE.

BWARON TONE te dako san REZEV ke se pou AYITI divose ak LANG FRANSE yo;misye sispek ke FRANSE yo ka ize LANG lan ,ke apre ke yo fin kase CHENN LAN PYE an ;FRANSE yo ka ize LANG LAN pou kenbe ENFLIYANS.

Neg yo te ekri AK ENDEPANDANS lan an FRANSE ,se pa paske yo te renmen LANG lan ;men tankou DEBORAH JENSON fe remake l lan "BEYOND THE SLAVE NARRATIVES" se te jis pou lot peyi ka konprann yo.
Menm jan ke EWOPEYEN yo te konn ekri DOKIMAN an LATEN ,pou lot peyi konprann yo.
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MessageSujet: Re: DE GRAFF ap resere ETO an-Li pote KONBA a sou TERITWA ADVESE yo   Sam 20 Juin 2015 - 8:52

Yon lot PWODIKSYON EKIP MICHEL DEGRAFF lan:

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