Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti
Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti
Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti
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Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti

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 Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt.

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Sasaye
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Sasaye

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Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt. Empty
MessageSujet: Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt.   Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt. EmptyJeu 30 Mai 2013 - 14:18


Kèlkeswa jan nou wè l, se yon pa annavan pou peyi an.
Demagoji ou non, Mateli di sa k bezwen di lan okazyon saa.
Rayi chen di dan l blan.

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Sasaye
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MessageSujet: Re: Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt.   Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt. EmptyJeu 30 Mai 2013 - 14:26

Men plis detay sou plas Bwaye.


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jafrikayiti
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MessageSujet: Re: Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt.   Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt. EmptyVen 31 Mai 2013 - 8:14

Li bon pou nou wè reparasyon fèt sou plas Boyer. Se domaj, plas sa a pote non yon prezidan manfouben, ki asosye ak zouti segregasyonis rasis, aryeris tankou "Code Rural", "rançon 150M Franc de Charles X" ....yon pleziyis anti-edikasyon ki pa kite bon tras ditou pou listwa.

Mwen espere anpil jenn fanm ak jenn gason, pitit repasèz ak jeran lakou benefisye limyè sou plas la pou yo pase ekzamen sètifika, bakaloreya, aprann fome tèt yo pou kont yo...pou yo ka ogmante chans soti fanmi yo nan mizè pwograme a....

Jaf
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Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt. Empty
MessageSujet: Re: Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt.   Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt. EmptyVen 31 Mai 2013 - 19:33

Chak fwa mwen tande cliches simplistes sila yo ap voye monte sou Boyer, tandis que tant dàutres presidents fe 100 fwa mwens ke li pou edikation et poutan se sou li sel yo toujou ap choute: Combien lekol Dessalines te konstwi....et tout presidents ki vini apres Boyer yo ki sa yo te fe pou edikation...avant Geffrard...

Messie bagay yo pa si simp jan nou vle fe pep la kwe a. Mwen vin ak Dokiman authentik dèpok deja pou montre Boyer te en kontak avec làbbe Gregoire pou voye livres ak professeurs pou Haiti, ensuite se sou Boyer yo te kree en 1824 premier embryon Universite d`Haiti sou nom ``Academie d`Haiti`en 1824. Se te yon moyen tou pou velleite yo te `Haitianise`Dominicains yo `nan creation yon universite langue francaise unik sou zilee a.

Se vre en effet li te gen yon konseption ``elitiste`` de Edikation et ke li te fe fermen Universite Santo-Domingo- ki te anba coupe legliz katolik panyol yo ki te fondamentalmant racistes et ki te a la source de tout konplot pou colons debarke chasse Haitiens et retabli esklavaj sou zilee a. Alos fok nou place bagay yo nan kontexte yo avant vin recite catechis istwa dayiti Dorsinville
.

Les constitutions d'Haïti, 1801-1885 - Page 150

books.google.ca/books?id=jeIrAQAAIAAJ - Translate this page
Louis Joseph Janvier, Haiti - 1886 - Read - More editions
Louis Joseph Janvier, Haiti ... en parlant de Boyer quìl a vewrtement critique `` Il est vrai qu'en 1823 il fonda l'Académie d'Haïti, qui devint, dans la suite, l'École de médecine de Port-au-Prince...``
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Education en Haiti: Historique




Les colons Francais établis à Saint Domingue dans le but de se faire une fortune, se souciaient très peu d’établir dans la colonie des écoles et des centres éducatifs qui dispenseraient un enseignement allant au-delà du stade primaire. Ceux-ci jugés incompatible avec le système esclavagiste sur lequel reposait la production de la colonie. Dans la majorité des cas, ils se contentaient d’envoyer leurs progénitures dans la mère-patrie pour se faire une éducation, et du coup, les éloigner de l’ambiance de libertinage et de promiscuité qui régnait dans cette colonie française.

Il n’etait donc pas question pour la masse d’esclaves noirs, considérés comme des choses dont on pouvait se disposer à volonté, de recevoir une instruction. Des chanceux, comme Toussaint Louverture reçurent des rudiments d’éducation de protecteurs, ou ont eu la bonne fortune de se rendre en France. D’autres, comme le reconnaît Jean Fouchard, débarquaient des bateaux négriers avec un bagage éducatif assez solide (Les marrons du syllabaire)

Il est intéressant de noter ici, toutefois, que certains colons, dans leur souci d’avoir une main d’oeuvre gratuite, se donnaient pour tache de doter certains de leurs esclaves d’un métier, et devenaient les premiers bénéficiaires des produits de leur art, se passant ainsi des artisans Européens qui coûtaient trop chers.

Après l’Indépendance, à part quelques rares exceptions, l’éducation ne fut pas l’une des priorités des différents gouvernements qui se sont succédés en Haiti, quoique tous, dans leurs discours ou à travers des documents légaux soulèvent la problématique de l’éducation.

Dessalines fit inscrire dans la Constitution impériale une école populaire pour chacune des six divisions militaires de son empire (article 19).

Christophe érigea des écoles dans certaines villes de son royaume, fonda des académies royales servant d’écoles secondaires et s’intéressa même à l’éducation des jeunes demoiselles du royaume en fondant deux écoles privées de filles au Cap. Pour superviser ces écoles, il fonda la Chambre Royale d’Instruction Publique et fit appel à des enseignants Anglais.

Pétion manifesta un certain souci pour l’instruction de ses concitoyens en établissant quelques écoles et en fondant le premier lycée national à Port-au-Prince. A travers la Constitution de 1816, il affirma aussi le principe de l’éducation primaire et celui de l’enseignement gratuit pour tous.

Sous Boyer, l’éducation fut reléguée au champs des bonnes intentions à travers la préconisation des établissements destinés aux enfants de ceux qui auraient rendu des services à la patrie. Boyer passa également dans l’histoire comme celui qui, après avoir réalisé l’unité de l’île, ferma l’université de Santo Domingo.

En 1844, un ministère de l’Instruction Publique fut créée, mais le manque d’organisation et l’absence d’une politique d’éducation rationnelle et continue, rendit ce nouveau ministère ineffectif, et ce, jusqu’à la nomination d’Elie Dubois, sous la présidence de Fabre Geffrard, comme ministre de l’instruction publique. Ce dernier, est reconnu comme le seul président du dix-neuvième siècle dont le gouvernement accorda une attention spéciale à l’éducation.

En effet, son gouvernement établit de nombreuses écoles en Haiti et encouragea l’instruction à grande échelle. Après la signature du Concordat (voir: date historiques 28 Mars 1860) qui fit du catholicisme la religion officielle d’Haiti, il accueillit des missionnaires catholiques qui établirent les premières écoles congréganistes en Haiti. Il réorganisa l’École de Médecine et l’École de Droit et créa les écoles de Peinture, de Musique et de Navigation.

La constitution de 1874 fut la première à reconnaître l’importance de l’instruction publique, au moins dans sa phase primaire en déclarant l’enseignement primaire obligatoire. Les constitutions suivantes stipuleront que l’enseignement primaire est non seulement obligatoire, mais gratuit. Malgré ces bonnes intentions, les structures se s’améliorèrent guère, et l’Etat haïtien continua de négliger ses devoirs en ce domaine, préférant laisser la responsabilité d’éduquer les petits Haïtiens aux étrangers.

A la fin du siècle, l’éducation se retrouva pratiquement à la charge de religieux catholiques étrangers qui fondèrent des écoles où se retrouvèrent les enfants de la bourgeoisie établie et négligèrent ostensiblement la masse.

Léon D. Pamphile rapporta qu’en l’année du centenaire de l’Indépendance (1904), « seulement 3% des enfants entre cinq ans et dix-huit ans fréquentent les écoles en Haiti » ( L’éducation sous l’occupation américaine: 1915-1934, p. 37). comme au temps de la colonie, les forces politiques et économiques du début du XIXè siècle continuèrent d’empêcher la diffusion du progrès et à l’éducation du peuple (Ibidem.)

L’occupation américaine de 1915, qui bouleversa la vie sociale et politique du pays et assura aux Américains une main mise robuste sur toute l’administration publique, ne contribua nullement à la réduction de l’analphabétisme en Haiti. Le peu d’attention accordée à l’education se concentra dans le domaine technique et agricole au grand dam de l’élite intellectuelle de l’époque, gens de lettres et des humanités, tenants de la culture francophone.

En 1941, Maurice Dartigue fut nommé à la tête du ministère de l’instruction publique. Pendant quatre ans, Dartigue essaya de créer un corps enseignant compétent et des programmes de perfectionnement des cadres scolaires d’une telle envergure qu’on n’hésita pas à parler de « réforme Dartigue » pour résumer ces démarches.

Au nouveau de l’éducation, les quarante dernières années sont marquées par quatre phénomènes de grandes importance:

L’exode massif de ceux et celles qui pourraient être des enseignants compétents, attirés par les offres alléchantes de certains pays d’Afrique et du Québec ou forcés à l’exil.
La prolifération des « écoles borlettes », incapables de se pourvoir d’un personnel vraiment qualifié. Le taux d’échecs Aux examens officiels, ces écoles accusent un taux d’échecs, quelquefois embarrassants. Toutefois, elles suppléent à l’Etat en acceptant des étudiants qui, autrement, ne seraient pas acceptés dans les écoles publiques ou congréganistes.
L’échec de la réforme du système de l’enseignement entreprise par le ministre Joseph C. Bernard à la fin des années 70; une réforme qui prenait en compte la réalité linguistique d’Haiti et tentait de ré-structurer les dispositifs de l’éducation à partir de cette réalité. Certains éléments de cette réforme, qui aurait constitué un acte révolutionnaire dans l’histoire de l’éducation, furent repris après 1986.
Le lancement du plan national d’education et de formation.
Aujourd’hui, l’Etat haitien n’est toujours pas en mesure ou ne veut pas mettre l’éducation à la portée du grand nombre, et ce malgré des demandes sans cesse accrues de la part des masses prenant chaque jour conscience de l’importance d’une bonne formation académique pour leurs progénitures. Les fonds du budget national alloués à cet effet demeurent insignifiants et l’absence d’une politique d’éducation bien structurées et tenant compte de ces demandes laisse perplexe.
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Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt. Empty
MessageSujet: Re: Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt.   Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt. EmptySam 1 Juin 2013 - 1:25

Haiti est prêt for business avec la place Boyer . OH, yeah !
A quand une deuxième piste d'atterrissage à l'aéroport INT'L de PAP?

Parlons de vraies Affaires monsieur Sasaye.

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MessageSujet: Re: Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt.   Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt. EmptySam 1 Juin 2013 - 3:32

DOUB;
Pa vin bat la gwoskès depi y ap pale de BWAYE.
Premyèman ,se pou w mande w pouki sa DOMINIKEN yo te kòmanse kreye lekòl ,apre yo te vin endepandan.
Mwen te wè yon papye ke an 1844 te gen mwens ke 2000 timoun ki te lekòl lan PATI ÈS lan ,an 1852 te deja gen plis ke 10 MIL.
Sa k te fè sa?
Zafè edikasyon pou ELIT lan sèlman ,se BWAYE ki rantre l lan kòlòs tèt nou ;nou pa janm reprann nou de sa.
Edikasyon vin yon bagay ki danjere,Li vin pati de yon LWA e DEMAND.
Pou ki sa ou kontinye ap voye monte paske MANIGA se yon gwo entelekyèl ,alòs se li ki pou dirije ;se yon sans yon bagay BWAYE kite pou nou.
Bagay yo te deja vin ""set"" apre BWAYE.2 BRANCH BOUJWAZI an NWA ak MILAT pa t wè avantaj pou yo edike MAS yo ;yo te wè yon DETRIMAN lan sa.
Bagay ke BWAYE te sanse di ke moun pa bezwen konn li pou TRAVAY la tè an ,apre li te fin fèmen lekòl lan NÒ yo ;rantre lan kòlòs tèt nou ;li vin lan mès nou.
Mwen ap repete l.
Pouki sa ke prezidan MEDINA youn lan premye DISKOU ke l fè se pou di ke anviwon 10% POPILASYON DOMINIKEN an pa konn li ak ekri e ke misye di ke SE YON BAGAY INAKSEPTAB ,alòs ke noumenm nou gen 50% e ou pa tande anyen.
Zafè ke LABE GREGWA te ap vin kreye lekòl lan ,li t ap kapab fè sa wi si se verite BWAYE t ap bay.
Yo di ke BWAYE t ap bay GREGWA yon bann manti ;misye te kwè tèlman lan pa t kreye lekòl ke li te kenbe korespondans li ak GREGWA yon sekrè.
Edikasyon ,menm edikasyon ki pi minim lan ,pou BWAYE se te pou ELIT lan.
Se te youn lan pi gwo repwòch ke mesye 1843 yo te fè BWAYE.Yo te di ke misye REFIZE mete lekòl.
Pa mete LEKÒL sa a se te yon POLITIK KONSYAN de BWAYE .Se pa t kapab ,li pa t kapab fè l;li pa t kwè lan li.
M AP REPETE L;BAGAY NOU KONTINYE AP VOYE MANIGA YO MONTE ;MENM SI SE PASKE YO BYEN EDIKE ;SAN KE YO PA PRAN TAN POU YO FÈ ANYEN DÒT;SE ERITAJ BWAYE AK ZÒT YO!
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Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt. Empty
MessageSujet: Re: Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt.   Plas Bwaye Petyonvil refèt nèt. EmptySam 1 Juin 2013 - 9:54

Jowel menm de payis Eropeen tankou la Grece, Portugal ak italie pat arrive mete yon systeme edikation primaire de masse nan fin 19 e siek la. A peine 13 a 29 % timoun nan peyi sayo te al lekol primaire..Poukisa nou vle se Boyer ki pou twe reussi kote met Aristid echwe na fin 20e siek...

Nan analyse yo fe yo montre clef succes edikassion masse primaire se lo Letat mete ak legliz. Se Geffrard ki te siyen Concordat ak Vatican



http://www.soc.cornell.edu/faculty/strang/articles/Construction%20of%20the%20First%20Mass%20Education%20Systems.pdf

Pa gen moun ki parfait ankor mwen yon Presidan. Men le wou fe total fiche realisations Boyer, li positif, se youn nan pi gwo Presidant Haiti te geyen ki mete Haiti nan concerts des Nations nan 19 siek la, ki retire image 'esclaves revoltes' pou remplace li par yon Etat reconnu internationalman, malgre contexte defavorable esclavajis ki tap kontinie toujou nan res amerik la, sitou Etats-Unis.

Dayer yon nan geste pi signifikatif li te poze se pou immigration Nwa aux Etats-Unis yo pou Etabli an Haiti....malgre maigres moyens Letat te genyen a lepok.... Sa detwi thez yo vle kole yon etiquette 'segregationiste' sou do Boyer, se en effet te gen plis moun pa, favoritisme kitap fet pou bay poste nan administration ak l'armee se possib, men se pa dapre mwen yon bagay racial. Zafe code rural la se pa Boyer ki te invente li: Depi sou Toussaint li te existe, Dessalines se youn ki te applike li avec le plus severite. Mwen raple nou li te bay lod entre autres a General Germain Frere massacre yon cinquantaine vodouisants sou bitation li Santo paske yo patap travay, pou yon semaine ceremonies vodou. Kanta Christophe nan Nord peyi a se pa pale, sete yon veritab Royaume feodal..

Kife sete des choix ekonomik nan kontext National et mondial epok la et non pa ideologie de kouleur jan yo vle fe kwel la

Jean Pierre Boyer
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (February 2008)
Jean-Pierre Boyer

4th President of Haiti
In office
30 March 1818 – 13 February 1843
Preceded by Alexandre Pétion
Succeeded by Charles Riviere-Hérard
Personal details
Born 15 February 1776
Port-au-Prince, Saint-Domingue
Died 9 July 1850 (aged 74)
Paris, France
Nationality Haitian
Spouse(s) Marie-Madeleine Lachenais
Jean-Pierre Boyer (possibly 15 February 1776 – 9 July 1850) was one of the leaders of the Haitian Revolution, and President of Haiti from 1818 to 1843. He reunited the north and south of Haiti in 1820 and also invaded and took control of Santo Domingo, which brought all of Hispaniola under one government by 1822. Boyer managed to rule for the longest period of time of any of the revolutionary leaders of his generation.
Born a free gens de couleur (or mulatto) in Saint-Domingue (modern-day Haiti) and educated in France, Boyer fought with Toussaint Louverture in the early years of the Haitian Revolution. He allied himself with André Rigaud, also a mulatto, in the latter's abortive insurrection against Toussaint to try to keep control in the south of Saint-Domingue.
After going into exile in France, Boyer and Alexandre Pétion, another mulatto, returned in 1802 with the French troops led by General Charles Leclerc. After it became clear the French were going to try to reimpose slavery and restrictions on free gens de couleur, Boyer joined the patriots under Pétion and Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who led the colony to independence. After Pétion rose to power in the State of Haiti in the South, he chose Boyer as his successor. He was reportedly under the influence of his (and his predecessor's) lover, Marie-Madeleine Lachenais, who acted as his political adviser.[1]
When Santo Domingo became independent late in 1821, Boyer was quick to invade and gain control, uniting the entire island under his rule by 9 February 1822. Boyer ruled the island of Hispaniola until 1843, when he lost the support of the ruling elite and was ousted.[2]
Contents [hide]
1 Early life and education
2 Military career
3 State of Haiti
4 Unification of Haiti and Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)
5 Payment of indemnity to France
6 Recruiting free American blacks
7 Exile and death
8 Footnotes
9 References
Early life and education [edit]

Boyer was born in Port-au-Prince as the son of a Frenchman, a tailor by profession, and an African mother, a former slave from Guinea.[3] Heading an urban, wealthy household, his father could afford to send Boyer to France, where he paid for his education at a military school. Boyer joined the French Revolutionary Army and earned the rank of battalion commander.
Military career [edit]

After the uprising of African slaves in the north of Saint-Domingue in 1791, Boyer joined with the French Commissioners and went there to fight against the grand blancs (plantation owners) and royalists. In 1794, Saint-Domingue was invaded by British forces trying to capitalize on the unrest in the formerly wealthy colony. Boyer went to Jacmel, where he joined forces with the mulatto leader, General André Rigaud. When other mulatto leaders surrendered to Toussaint Louverture in southern Saint-Domingue, Boyer escaped to France with Rigaud and Alexandre Pétion.
At the time, the United States supported French efforts to re-establish control, although it did not commit troops. Boyer traveled to Paris, where he stayed until 1801.
Next, he returned to Haiti to protest the independence that Toussaint Louverture had just achieved. By early 1802, Rigaud and other leaders learned that the French intended to take away the civil rights of mulattoes and re-institute slavery for former slaves in Saint-Domingue (as they had managed to do in Guadeloupe.) They sent General LeClerc to defeat the rebels, and over the next 21 months, added to his forces by 20,000 troops. Boyer collaborated with other native leaders to defeat the French. In November 1803, France withdrew its surviving 7,000 troops, less than one-third of the forces sent to the island. Most had died as a result of yellow fever, which was endemic to the island.
Jean-Jacques Dessalines, a former slave from the North, declared Haitian independence on 1 January 1804. He established himself as Emperor Jacques I. He was assassinated by opponents in 1806.
Alexandre Pétion and Henri Christophe competed to rule Haiti, and represented the split between the urban mulatto elite of the South and the black former slaves of the North, respectively. After years of warfare, they established separate states: Pétion continuing the Republic of Haiti in the southern part of Haiti, and Christophe creating the State (later Kingdom) of Haiti in the north.
State of Haiti [edit]

Boyer worked closely with Pétion in the South to create a Republican Constitution similar to that of the United States. President Pétion taught Boyer what to do, and what not to do. Pétion succeeded in winning the hearts of his people and grew to be the most liked of any leader. In 1816, Pétion had the constitution amended to allow him to name his own successor. Before dying in 1818, Pétion anointed Boyer, and the Senate immediately approved his choice.
Boyer believed Haiti had to be acknowledged as an independent nation, and that this could be established only by cutting a deal with France. On 11 July 1825, Boyer signed an indemnity treaty stipulating that Haiti would pay France a certain amount of money to compensate for the lost property in slaves and trade in exchange for formal diplomatic recognition of its independence.
As soon as Boyer came to power, he was confronted with the continuing competition with Henri Christophe and the Kingdom of Haiti in the north. Christophe's autocratic rule created continued unrest in the Kingdom of Haiti. After his soldiers rebelled against him in 1820, in failing health and fearing assassination, Christophe committed suicide. Boyer reunited Haiti without a single battle.
Unification of Haiti and Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) [edit]

On 30 November 1821, several frontier towns near the border with Santo Domingo raised the Haitian flag as a show of independence. The new nation was known as Spanish Haiti. On 1 December 1821, the leaders of the new nation resolved to unite it with Gran Colombia.[citation needed]
But, some politicians and military officers in Santo Domingo favored unification with the Republic of Haiti.[citation needed] Former slaves sought to secure emancipation under the Haitian President Jean-Pierre Boyer. Another faction based in Dajabon, near the border, opposed union with Gran Colombia and supported Boyer.[citation needed]
Boyer sought to protect his country from the danger of France or Spain re-taking Santo Domingo and attacking or re-conquering Haiti. He wanted to maintain Haitian independence and secure the freedom of the slaves in Santo Domingo.[citation needed]
After promising protection to several Dominican frontier governors and securing their allegiance, in February 1822 Boyer invaded the Dominican Republic with a force of 50,000 soldiers. These forces encountered little resistance from the considerably smaller Dominican population. On 9 February 1822, Boyer formally entered the capital city, Santo Domingo, where Núñez de Cáceres handed over the keys to the city. Dominicans reacted uneasily to the Haitian invasion.[citation needed]
The island of Hispaniola was now united under one government from Cape Tiburon to Cape Samana. By awarding land to Haitian military officers at the expense of former members of the Spanish forces of Santo Domingo, Boyer reduced his influence with the Spanish-Haitian leadership. He continued the policy of Pétion, his former political mentor, of helping free people of color in other Spanish-American colonies to resist the Spanish crown. Boyer ignored Haitian political opponents who called for reforms, such as parliamentary democracy, and veteran generals of the War of Independence, who believed that the revolution was not complete and that they were being neglected.[citation needed]
Payment of indemnity to France [edit]

Boyer was anxious to eliminate the threat from France and opened negotiations. An agreement was reached on 11 July 1825, when (with fourteen French warships off Port-au-Prince) Boyer signed an indemnity treaty. It stated that France would recognize Haiti as an independent country in return for 150 million francs paid within five years. While this sum was later reduced to 90 million francs (in 1838), it was a crushing economic blow to Haiti, which essentially had to buy its independence after having defeated French forces.
Boyer had to negotiate a loan from France of 30 million francs to pay the first part of the indemnity. Most of the largely rural Haitian population meanwhile was retreating into an agricultural subsistence pattern. He tried to enforce the semi-feudal fermage system in order to increase agricultural productivity on the island, but the people resisted being tied to other people's lands. The people of Haiti were distressed at their situation. With the Rural Act, Boyer resurrected a land distribution program. He broke up some of the large plantations and distributed land to the small farmers. To try to produce enough products for export to generate revenue, the government "tied" the rural population to their smallholdings and established production quotas.
Boyer's rule lasted until 1843, when the poor economic situation was worsened by an earthquake. The disadvantaged majority rural population rose up under Charles Rivière-Hérard in late January. On 13 February 1845, Boyer fled Haiti to nearby Jamaica. He eventually settled in exile in France, where he died in Paris. Descendants of Boyer still live in Haiti.
Recruiting free American blacks [edit]

Boyer tried to recruit free black Americans to emigrate to the Republic of Haiti. His government advertised the opportunities in newspapers: “promising free land and political opportunity to black settlers." Boyer sent agents to black communities in the United States to convince them that Haiti was a sovereign state and open to immigration only for blacks.
The American Colonization Society (ACS) noticed the recruitment effort. Concerned that free blacks could never assimilate to the United States, its members founded their society in 1816 to "repatriate" American blacks to Africa, regardless of where they had been born. It was an uneasy collaboration between abolitionists and slaveholders, who approached the issue from differing viewpoints. The ACS planned colonization in what became Liberia for former slaves. In 1817 Loring D. Dewey toured the East Coast to recruit emigrants, starting in New York. The organization hoped to resettle 100,000 free people of color within 10 years.[citation needed]
Dewey's meetings with people in New York convinced him to abandon the idea of colonizing Liberia. Most American blacks did not want to leave what they considered was fully their native country. Dewey met with Haitian citizens in New York, most of whom were refugee ethnic French and free people of color who had fled the revolution. They recommended Haiti as the ideal black homeland, due to its moderate weather conditions and independent black government. After Dewey wrote to Boyer to determine if he was still interested in receiving American immigrants, Boyer proposed that Haiti would seek blacks exclusively from the United States.
The ACS sent Boyer questions related to its goal of a colony for American free blacks. Boyer was confident that his government would be able to receive these people. The ACS tried to negotiate to have the Haitian government pay transportation costs for the emigrants. Boyer responded that the government would pay for those who could not afford it, but the ACS would have to take care of the rest of the finances. Haiti was already in debt to the French, which had exacted high payment for lost properties of planters, in essence making Haiti pay for its independence. The government did not have funds to transport American families to Haiti.[citation needed]
Dewey proposed establishing a colony for American free blacks that would be separate from the rest of the island, with its own laws, legislature, etc. Boyer was opposed to the idea of an American colony on the island, since the Haitians already feared re-colonization by the French. He told Dewey that the laws of the Haitian government applied to everyone across Haiti.
Beginning in September 1824, nearly 6,000 Americans, mostly free people of color, migrated to Haiti within a year, with ships departing from New York, Baltimore and Philadelphia.[4] Due to the poverty of the island and the inability of Boyer's administration to help support the new immigrants in the transition, most returned to the United States within a short period of time.
Exile and death [edit]

This section requires expansion. (December 2010)
After being overthrown, Boyer left Haiti on 13 February 1843 and went first to Jamaica. Then he was exiled to France. He died there in 1850.
Footnotes [edit]

^ http://www.haiticulture.ch/Madeleine_Lachenais.html
^ Rogozinski, Jan (1999). A Brief History of the Caribbean (Revised ed.). New York: Facts on File, Inc. pp. 218–220. ISBN 0-8160-3811-2.
^ Hazard (1873), p. 167
^ US Gazette, Philadelphia, 1824, from Girard Alphonse Firire, Ph.D., "HAITI AND ITS DIASPORA: NEW HISTORICAL, CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC FRONTIERS", 27 Aug 1999, accessed 15 Jan 2010
References [edit]

Boyer, Jean Pierre and Loring Dewey, Society for Promoting the Emigration of Free Persons of Colour to Hayti (Mayday, 1824).
Brown, Gordon S., Toussaint’s Clause: The Founding Fathers of the Haitian Revolution (Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2005).
Hazard, Samuel, Santo Domingo: Past and Present, with a Glance at Hayti, Harper & Brothers, 1873
Leger, Jacques Nicolas, Haiti, Her History and Her Detractors (New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1907).
Miller, Floyd J., The Search for Black Nationality: Black Emigration and Colonization 1787–1863 (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1975).
Shick, Tom. W, Contemporary Sociology 11/1/76, Vol. 5 Issue 6, pp. 798–799, 2p.
Staudenraus, P.J., The African Colonization Movement 1816–1865 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1961).


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DOUB;

Pa konpare jan LEGLIZ KATOLIK wè edikasyon konpare ak LEGLIZ PWOTESTAN yo.
Moun te konn li lan ETAZINI ak KOLONI l yo ,se paske PWOTESTAN yo te kwè lan edikasyon ;katolik yo pa t kwè ladan l.
KLÈJE KATOLIK lan pa t kwè lan edikasyon MAS menm jan ak PWOTESTAN yo .Pa egzanp moun te konn li ann ALMAY ak LANGLETÈ ,konpare ak la FRANS.
An FRANS si PATI SOSYALIS lan pa t fè EDIKASYON an vin LAYIK lan lanne 1880s yo ;la FRANS t ap rete lan dèyè kamyonèt lan menm jan ak LESPAY.
Boujwazi an ak LAME an te tèlman pè EDIKASYON tout moun lan ,lan LANNE 1880S yo ke te gen yon TANTATIV KOUDETA ak yon NÈG yo rele BOULANGER.
Si koudeta sa a te reyisi e ke EDIKASYON te rete lan men KLÈJE KATOLIK lan ;la FRANS pa t ap devlope.
Mouvman sa a te kòmanse an FRANS apre la GÈ ki te fèt ant ALMAY ak la FRANS an 1870 .
Teknoloji ALMAN yo te tèlman pi avanse ke pa FRANSE yo .
Solda ALMAN yo ki te ale lekòl te tèlman pi avanse ke FRANSE yo ;se te panik .ALMAN yo te ka opere ZAM SOFISTIKE pou EPÒK lan ;FRANSE yo pa t kapab.
se pou m di w ke KLÈJE KATOLIK lan pa t kwè lan EDIKASYON DE MAS ;ZAFÈ konkoda sa a te fè plis MAL ke byen.
KRISTÒF te wè sa ;misye te kwè lan EDIKASYON e li te enpòte PWOFESÈ SÒTI LAN ZILE ANGLE yo
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