Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti
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 MICHEL DE GRAFF ENTÈNASYONALIZE LIT LI POU SIPREMASI KREYÒL LAN

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Joel
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MICHEL DE GRAFF itilize MISIL BALISTIK ENTÈKONTINAL  yo rele NEW YORK TIMES lan pou l atake LÈNMI KREYÒL yo.
Malgre tout bagay se yomenm ki domine DISKISYON an ,ann AYITI.

DEGRAFF enplike ke si w kont KREYÒL lan kòm LANG EDIKASYON ou se ni pli ni mwens LÈNMI PÈP AYISYEN an ,paske se ak EDIKASYON ke yon PÈP PWOGRESE ,pa gen lòt MWAYEN.
Bon TRAVAY Dr DEGRAFF ki ap IZOLE LEPANDYÈ FRANKOFOU yo:

A Creole Solution for Haiti’s Woes
By MICHEL DeGRAFF and MOLLY RUGGLESAUG. 1, 2014

CAMBRIDGE, Mass. — IN a classroom in Port-au-Prince, Chantou, 9, sits silently at her desk. Nervously watching the teacher, she hopes to be invisible. Like most of her 60 classmates, she understands little of the French from the lecture. But if her memorized lesson is not recited with perfect pronunciation and grammar, she may be ridiculed or punished by her teacher.

In a classroom on La Gonâve island, two 9-year-olds, Kelson and Dieuricame, hover over a computer, excitedly playing a math game. Chatting away in their native Haitian Creole (spelled Kreyòl in Haiti), they experiment together and solve problems. When the teacher announces the end of class, they ask, “May we come back later for more?”

The contrast between these two learning environments illustrates a fundamental challenge in Haitian education, one that implicates language and pedagogy, and has contributed to Haiti’s extreme poverty: The authoritarian French model, which makes children struggle to learn in a language they do not speak, still prevails over an alternative model, in which children build skills through active learning in their native Creole.

Creole evolved in the 17th century out of contact among varieties of French and West African languages. Most Creole words have their origins in French, but the languages have distinct grammatical structures and sound patterns; even when their words sound alike, they often have different meanings. Using French to teach Creole speakers, in short, is like using Latin to teach French speakers.

Under the 1987 Constitution, adopted after the overthrow of Jean-Claude Duvalier’s dictatorship, Creole and French have been the two official languages. But at least 95 percent of the population speaks only Creole. For the past two centuries, most communications in government, white-collar business, media and education have been in French. The preference for French has been internalized even by those who have no opportunity to learn the language. Such attitudes have started to change, but too slowly.

When children start school, they are forced to study in French, although there is no pedagogical support for this abrupt transition. As documented in a 2012 government report, most students resort to memorizing letters and sounds without understanding, and end up with low levels of literacy.

Happily, the government of President Michel Martelly, who ran on a platform of universal, free, compulsory education and took office in 2011, has increased access to primary education to 88 percent — up from 47 percent in 1993 and ahead of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The next hurdle is language. Study after study highlights the importance of using native language to establish the foundations of literacy, numeracy and basic scientific knowledge, with which other academic domains, including the study of French, can be pursued.

A collaborative initiative between M.I.T. and Haiti has produced a collection of Creole resources for science and math. In teacher-training workshops, one teacher told us, “When we teach in Creole, the students ask more questions.” And from a student, “The advantage of learning in Creole is that it is more explicit; it allows us to see more clearly.” At a June 2014 workshop, Prime Minister Laurent Lamothe, other officials and M.I.T. faculty members explored the challenges and opportunities facing Haiti with the sophistication and nuance that such a meeting demands: All of the materials were written in Creole.

Continue reading the main storyContinue reading the main story
Creole’s exile from Haitian education is tied to Haiti’s colonial past. Haiti won its independence from France in 1803 after a historic revolution, becoming the first republic governed by formerly enslaved people of African descent. Yet its European legacy is still valued more highly than the African and Creole ingredients of its culture. “What influence can Haiti ever have with its Creole?” the poet Carl Brouard once warned. “Parents, never speak Creole to your children.” The bias toward French keeps the elite’s interests well protected from the needs of the masses. Creole holds the potential to democratize knowledge, and thus liberate the masses from extreme poverty.

This proposed use of Creole in Haiti is akin to René Descartes’s elevation of French as a language for science in 17th-century France. Descartes switched from Latin to make science accessible to the French-speaking populace. French was considered vernacular and inferior, but he legitimized it as an academic language and thus cemented the establishment of the modern French nation. The “Francophonie” movement continues to be a mighty vehicle of French political and economic influence in the world.

A similar story happened in 17th-century Italy, where Galileo was among the first scientists to write in the vernacular instead of Latin. Creole in Haiti can similarly become an academic language, a tool for nation building and an instrument of political and economic progress.

Haiti’s government and civil society have started to come around, by supporting an expansion of the formal, written use of Creole in education and public administration and by legislating the creation of an academy for the promotion of Creole. They recognize that the language is a tool for economic empowerment.

Haitian elites need to catch up, and international aid agencies should support the process, so that Creole can acquire the cultural capital it needs to propel Haiti further along the path toward opportunity for all.

Michel DeGraff is a professor of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and directs its initiative to promote education in Creole in Haiti. Molly Ruggles is a senior educational technology consultant at M.I.T.

A version of this op-ed appears in print on August 2, 2014, on page A17 of the New York edition with the headline: A Creole Solution for Haiti’s Woes. Order Reprints|Today's Paper|Subscribe

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Byen ke MICHEL DE GRAFF enplike ke MATELI LAMÒT ,sitou LAMÒT pataje vizyon l pou SIPREMASI KREYOL,bagay ke mwen doute paske MATELI twò REYAKSYONÈ pou sa;mwen ba misye ti ""leeway "" ti benefit di dout sa a!

www.nytimes.com/2014/08/02/opinion/a-creole-solution-for-haitis-woes.html
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Plen roulibè nan bounda kamyonèt la kap rele Lyogan Lyogann.Yo yout nachon, yo tout koulè, pou pov Ayiti.
Komsi menm lang kinan nou se yon konesko blan ki vle pran patènite l. Talè wa tande papa blan vire bounda w jan w vle Ayiti se kinan w. Antouka tradwi kreyol sa pou li.
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Antouka si se ak MICHEL DE GRAFF NÈG vle pale yo chire.
Mwen pa kwè ke gen MOUN ki kapab diskite ,ou byen gen trè pe,ki kapab diskite ak DEGRAFF sou LANG KREYÒL lan.
Se espesyalite l lan MIT ak tout RESOUS INIVÈSITE sa a genyen.
Petèt lè gen anpil FRANSE ki vle konnen sou 'CREYOLISTIC"" se DE GRAFF yo vin jwenn.

Zafè chache voye TOYA sou DEGRAFF ,se yon pèt de TAN ,li opere sou YON PLAN SIPERYÈ.

An pasan JAF ka konfime l.Anviwon 2001 konsa ,te gen yon diskisyon sou SIT yo rele WINDOWS ON HAITI an ;DEGRAFF ap pasyans t ap eksplike sou refinman OTOGRAF KREYÒL.
San DYÒLÈ,san li pa di li konnen e si gen yon MOUN ki konnen se li.

Pouki sa se ""ann AYITI"" pou w ekri ,olye ke se ""an AYITI"" ou byen se "'jwenn"" olye ke se ""jwen"" ;aprann olye de apran.
Ak pasyans li te eksplike pouki sa.
Tankou m di l ,zanmi FRANSE yo ,mare SENTI nou ,paske DEGRAFF gen lè l serye ,li lan dengonn nou!
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Epitou kite m tradwi kèk PATI lan ATIK lan ki parèt lan SATURDAY NEW YORK TIMES lan lè de dizèn de MILYON li JOUNAL sa a sou PAPYE AK ENTÈNÈT ,si se pa plis.

KREYÒL ,YOUN LAN SOLISYON POU PWOBLÈM AYITI AP KONFWONTE YO

Lan yon sal de klas lan PÒTOPRENS ,CHANTOU 9 an,chita bèbè sou BAN li..L ap wonyen kò l e li pè pou pwofesè an pa poze l yon kesyonTankou pi fò lòt 60 TIMOUN ki lan klas lan li pa konprann preske anyen lan FRANSE pwofesè an ap voye monte an.
Li konnen si l pa resite leson an ,ke li aprann pa kè e pwononse byen ,y ap pase l lan BETIZ e pwofesè an ap pini l.

Lan yon lòt SAL DE KLAS sou zile LAGONAV,2 TIMOUN 9 an KELSON ak DIEURICARME chita devan yon KONPITÈ,yo EKSITE ,KÈ yo kontan ,y ap jwe yon JWÈT MATEMATIK.Y ap pale KREYÒL youn ak lòt ,y ap fè ti eksperyans ,y ap rezoud pwoblèm..Lè pwofesè an anonse fen klas lan ,yo mande eske yo ka tounen pou yo kontinye ""jwèt"" yo.

Kontras ant jan TIMOUN yo ap aprann lan montre CHALANJ FONDAMANTAL ki genyen lan SISTÈM EDIKASYON an,ann AYITI.;se yon SISTÈM ki enplike LANG ak PEDAGOJI ki kontribye ak jan AYITI pòv konsa :MODÈL OTORITÈ FRANSE AN KI FÈ TIMOUN YO PLEDE AP GOUMEN POU YO APRANN LAN YON LANG KE YO PA PALE.
Se yon sistèm ke yo itilize sou tèt yon lòt sistèm ki te dwe yon ALTÈNATIV kote TIMOUN yo ap pran plis KONESANS lè yo ap fè schanj youn ak lòt lan LANG yo ki se kreyòl

KREYÒL evolye lan 17yèm syèk lan ,lan kontak anpil dyalèk franse ak lang afrik de lwès yo.PI FÒ mo KREYÒL yo sòti lan FRANSE ,men LANG yo pa gen menm estrikti GRAMÈ e MO yo pa sonnen menm jan;menm lè ke gen MO ki gen menm son ,yo konn pa vle di menm bagay.
An rezime lè w ap ize FRANSE pou w edike TIMOUN ki pale kreyòl yo se tankou w ta ize LATEN pou w edike TIMOUN ki pale FRANSE yo...
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Pou MOUN ki ta vle lòt yo fè konfizyon.
DEGRAFF se yon AYISYEN NATIF NATAL.
Se NÈG TÈT CHÒV lan pou sa ki poko janm wè l.Li ale 2 zou 3 FWA pa an ,ann AYITI pou li wè jan RECHÈCH li yo ap ATERI:

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Kite m kontinye tradiksyon kèk ekstrè lan atik Dr DEGRAFF lan.
A sa mwen tande ki pase ann AYITI.Rezilta EKZAMEN 6zyèm ANE ak 9yèm ANE.
Si lan DEPATMAN LWÈS lan gen 77% TIMOUN ki pase lan EKZAMEN 6zyèm ANE an ,ki sa y ap fè ak rès 23% an?
Lan PWOVENS yo ,se pi RÈD ;lan DEPATMAN GRANDANS lan gen 30 LEKÒL ki pa gen menm yon grenn TIMOUN ki pase lan EKZAMEN an.
SE KRETINISM ,SE ENKONPENTANS ,SE MOVÈZ FWA;se SAKRIFIS YON JENERASYON TIMOUN,SE YON GASPIYAJ .
An FRANS yo pa fè EKZAMEN 6zyèm ANE ankò ,paske apre 6 ZAN lekòl ,yon TIMOUN pa gen ase konesans pou l fonksyone lan yon SOSYETE MODÈN.
Tankou m di l ,se FRANSE yo nou kopye ,byen ke nou kopye yo mal;premye ekzamen DETA yo ,se apre 9yèm ANE yo fè l.

Bon ,men sa DEGRAFF di antròt lan ATIK li an ki parèt sou NEW YORK TIMES:

""Dapre KONSTISTISYON 1987 ki te adopte apre ranvèsman DIKTATI DIVALYE an ;KREYÒL ak FRANSE vin 2 LANG OFISYÈL peyi DAYITI;men tou omwens 95% POPILASYON an se KREYÒL sèlman yo pale.
Pou 2 syèk ki deja pase yo ,majorite kominikasyon lan GOUVÈNMAN ,lan biro LETA ,lan EDIKASYON se an FRANSE yo fèt.

Moun yo entènalize preferans pou lang FRANSE an ,menm MOUN ki pa janm aprann FRANSE e ki pa menm janm gen opòtinite pou yo fè sa.
Atitid kòmanse ap chanje piti piti ,men se ti pa ti pa ,ak pa TÒTI.

Lè TIMOUN yo antre lekòl pou premyè fwa ,yo fòse yo etidye an FRANSE,san okenn sipò pedagojik pou tranzisyon brid sou kou sa a.
Dokiman GOUVÈNMAN AYISYEN an ki date de 2012 di ke pi fò TIMOUN yo memorize LÈT ak SON yo san konprann.REZILTA vin ke pi fò TIMOUN yo li MALMAN.

EKZIL KREYÒL lan de EDIKASYON an se REZILTA pase kolonyal la.AYITI pran ENDEPANDANS li de FRANSE yo apre yon REVOLISYON ISTORIK.Li vini premye REPIBLIK ansyen ESKLAV ki desann de AFRIKEN.
Apre ENDEPANDANS sa a problèm lan kòmanse lan bay ERITAJ EWOPEYEN an plis enpòtans ke melanj AFRIKEN ak KREYÒL lan KILTI an.
Preferans pou lang FRANSE an pwoteje enterè ELIT yo anfas enterè MAS yo.
Kreyòl gen potansyèl pou l DEMOKRATIZE KONESANS e libere MAS yo de POVRETE EKSTRÈM yo twouve yo jounen jodi an ""   
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jafrikayiti
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Mèsi Joel pou pataj atik enpòtan sa a!

Travay Degraff ap fè a mande pou anpil moun, nan diferan domèn kore li, miltipliye li. Ak teknoloji modèn, nou ka fè anpil pwogrè rapid.

Men, pa bliye lòt kan an ap envesti anpil resous pou yo kenbe dezòd etabli a tennfas. Si ou suiv enplikasyon Michaelle Jean ak koze "Francophonie internationale" la, ou ka konprann se pa ti konfizyon ki pral kontinye layite nan peyi nou an, pandan ane k ap vini yo. Lafrans konnen se sou viktim kolonizasyon an pou li apiye pou li asire avni neyo-kolonyal li e, malerezman, gen anpil desandan reskape jenosid Napoléon yo ki poko ka wè anyen mal nan kolaborasyon y ap bay pwojè enperyalis franse a.

Kenbe plizyè milyon moun nan chenn ak yon lang akayik, san avni tankou lang franse, nan mitan kontinan Lamerik la, se yon estipidite san parèy. L ap pran tan, l ap pran anpil travay. Men, mwen sèten vye "chenn nan lang" sa a gen pou li kase kanmenm!

Jaf
"Depi nan Ginen bon Nèg ap ede Nèg!"
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This proposed use of Creole in Haiti is akin to René Descartes’s elevation of French as a language for science in 17th-century France. Descartes switched from Latin to make science accessible to the French-speaking populace. French was considered vernacular and inferior, but he legitimized it as an academic language and thus cemented the establishment of the modern French nation. The “Francophonie” movement continues to be a mighty vehicle of French political and economic influence in the world.

A similar story happened in 17th-century Italy, where Galileo was among the first scientists to write in the vernacular instead of Latin. Creole in Haiti can similarly become an academic language, a tool for nation building and an instrument of political and economic progress.

Haiti’s government and civil society have started to come around, by supporting an expansion of the formal, written use of Creole in education and public administration and by legislating the creation of an academy for the promotion of Creole. They recognize that the language is a tool for economic empowerment.

Haitian elites need to catch up, and international aid agencies should support the process, so that Creole can acquire the cultural capital it needs to propel Haiti further along the path toward opportunity for all.


Wi JAF lan ATIK lan ,DEGRAFF fè yon ti wout pa bwa ,pou l eksplike ke zafè ""FRANCOPHONIE"" sa a se yon ""marché de dupes"" ,pou m ize ekspresyon franse an,ke zòt ap ize pou regle zafè yo kont enterè peyi DAYITI ;petèt ti NÈG ak NÈGÈS ki kolabore lan antrepriz sa a ,se lan enterè yo men se pa lan enterè PÈP AYISYEN an:
M ap tradwi pou lè zòt yo:

Pwopozisyon pou monte eskanp lang KREYÒL pou ize l,ou gen dwa konpare sa ak LIT RENE DESCARTES te mennen pou fè FRANSE vin lang LA SYANS lan 17yèm syèk lan.DESCARTES ekri an FRANSE olye de LATEN pou l fè LA SYANS aksesib a popilasyon an ki pale FRANSE.
Lang FRANSE an te konsidere tankou yon lang VÈNAKILÈ ,ENFERYÈ,men DESCARTES lejitime LANG FRANSE an kòm yon LANG AKADEMIK e misye kore FONDASYON la FRANS tankou yon peyi modèn .
Mouvman "'FRANCOPHONIE"" an kontinye kòm yon zouti wòtpòt pou enfliyans peyi la FRANS lan MONN lan.

Menm bagay lan te rive ann ITALI lan 17yèm syèk lan.GALILEO se te youn lan premye SYANTIS lan peyi sa a ki te ekri nan lang vènakilè an (ITALYEN) olye de LATEN.
Alòs KREYÒL kapab vini yon LANG AKADEMIK ,yon ZOUTI pou konstwi peyi an e yon enstriman pou PWOGRÈ POLITIK ak EKONOMIK
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Joel
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Et si j'écris en français, qui est la langue de mon pays, plutôt qu'en
latin, qui est celle de mes précepteurs, c'est à cause que j'espère que ceux qui ne se
servent que de leur raison naturelle toute pure jugeront mieux de mes opinions que
ceux qui ne croient qu'aux livres anciens. Et pour ceux qui joignent le bon sens avec
l'étude, lesquels seuls je souhaite pour mes juges, ils ne seront point, je m'assure, si
partiaux pour le latin, qu'ils refusent d'entendre mes raisons, parce que je les explique
en langue vulgaire.



Sa a se PASAJ ke DEGRAFF renmen note lan anpil papye l yo.Yon deklarasyon ki petèt chanje ISTWA la FRANS ,paske DESCARTES ki te deja gen yon repitasyon ap ekri an FRANSE Lòt yo kapab ekri an FRANSE tou sou bagay ki konsène SYANS ak FILOZOFI.  
Advèsè RENÉ DESCARTES yo t ap kritike l paske l ap ekri an FRANSE ke yo te rele "'la langue vulgaire"" lan 17yèm syèk lan.
TEYORI nèg ki te save lan epòk sa a sè ke ou ka ekri ROMAN ,PWEZI an FRANSE men si gen bagay ki gen rapò ak LASYANS se an LATEN pou w ekri l
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