Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti
Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti
Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti
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Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti

FOROM AYITI : Tèt Ansanm Pou'n Chanje Ayiti.
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 Language lesson from Ayiti

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Super Star
Super Star

Nombre de messages : 8252
Localisation : Canada
Opinion politique : Indépendance totale
Loisirs : Arts et Musique, Pale Ayisien
Date d'inscription : 02/03/2007

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Jeu de rôle: Maestro

Language lesson from Ayiti Empty
MessageSujet: Language lesson from Ayiti   Language lesson from Ayiti EmptyDim 7 Aoû 2016 - 22:19

Published:Sunday | August 7, 2016 | 12:00 AM

We're so accustomed to thinking of Haiti as the poorest country in the Americas that we often forget a fundamental truth.
Wealth cannot always be measured in purely economic terms.

Haiti is one of the richest countries of the world in intellectual traditions and the creative arts. Haitians know how to turn dem hand mek fashion. You should see the inventive way in which scrap metal and discarded tyres are repurposed as art.

In response to last week's column, 'Miss Lou a very happy duppy today!', Prof Michel DeGraff, a Haitian linguist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), posted this message on Facebook: "Jamaica, Haiti: sister islands. Different languages, similar chains, similar struggles of liberation, going back to Boukman from Jamaica. Yes, Carolyn Cooper, let's not fall for these mind tricks: English 'derives' from Germanic, and French 'derives' from Latin. But Jamaican Creole and Haitian Creole 'corrupt' (!?!) English and French? Oh, no!"

Prof deGraff's invocation of Boukman recalls the instrumental role that this Jamaican hero played in starting the Haitian revolution. Named Bookman in Jamaica because he was literate, and Boukman in Haiti, he militantly refused to accept the identity of slave. He asserted his humanity in acts of resistance against systemic brutalisation.

Prof Carolyn Fick describes Boukman in this way in her book 'The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below': "He had been a commandeur (slave driver) and later a coachman on the Clement plantation, among the first to go up in flames once the revolt began. While his experience as commandeur provided him with certain organisational and leadership qualities, the post as coachman no doubt enabled him to follow the ongoing political developments in the colony, as well as to facilitate communication links and establish contacts among the slaves of different plantations. Reputedly, Boukman was also a Vodou priest and, as such, exercised an undisputed influence and command over his followers, who knew him as 'Zamba' Boukman. His authority was only enhanced by the overpowering impression projected by his gigantic size."


Prof DeGraff gave a brilliant keynote lecture at the 21st biennial conference of the Society for Caribbean Linguistics, convened last week at the University of the West Indies, Mona. He focused on 'Implementation of Kreyol as a Language of Education in Haiti'.

A recurring theme in Prof DeGraff's lecture was 'elite closure'. This term describes the way in which social and political elites across the world use language to exercise control over their presumed subordinates. Elites determine which languages are official and which are not. And access to privilege becomes dependent on how well you master the official language.

Prof DeGraff reminded us that when Queen Isabella of Spain was presented with a grammar of the Spanish language in 1492, she was confused. She wanted to know what purpose it would serve. It was the Bishop of Avila who set her straight. Here's an English translation of what he said: "Language is the perfect instrument of empire."

That's why the French, for example, are so big on 'la francophonie' - French-speaking communities. The official website of the International Organisation of La Francophonie brazenly declares that "[i]ts members share more than just a common language. They also share the humanist values promoted by the French language". Tell that to all those French-speakers who are alienated from their country of birth, France!

And, by the way, given all this talk of 'humanist values', I'm quite surprised that the Embassy of France in Jamaica inhumanely evicted the Alliance Francaise from its long-established home at Hillcrest Avenue. For quite some time now, the Alliance has been batter-battering, trying to find alternative accommodation. From one temporary shelter to the next! But I don't suppose Jamaica is a big enough market for la francophonie to make the Government of France take the Alliance seriously. All French-speakers are not created equal.


Prof deGraff reported that on a recent visit to Haiti, President Hollande of France offered French education as an export commodity to restore Haiti's lost identity! Such arrogance! If you speak French, you automatically share "humanist values". And if you are educated in French, you rediscover your true-true identity. As what? A colonised subject!

So a child in Haiti who speaks Kreyol, not French, is excluded at birth from the "humanist values" embedded in the European language! It is only the acquisition of French that can redeem the 'native' from the condition of congenital inferiority. But Prof deGraff also exposed how children 'learned' by rote when they are 'taught' in French. They memorise their textbooks and recite meaningless words.

Prof deGraff demonstrated that when these same children are taught in Kreyol, they easily learn supposedly 'difficult' subjects like science, technology, engineering and mathematics. And he reminded us that the 17th-century French philosopher and mathematician Rene Descartes chose to write in French, the 'unscholarly' language of his time. French, then, was a Creole language!

The Jamaican Language Unit at the University of the West Indies, Mona, under the visionary leadership of Prof Hubert Devonish, has translated primary school textbooks into Jamaican. The unit conducted a bilingual education project for students in grades one to four. It was an unquestionable success. Our Ministry of Education needs to take lessons from Haiti and give our local language the respect it deserves.

- Carolyn Cooper is a consultant on culture and development. Email feedback to [1] and [2].

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Super Star
Super Star

Nombre de messages : 17348
Localisation : USA
Loisirs : Histoire
Date d'inscription : 24/08/2006

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Jeu de rôle: Le patriote

Language lesson from Ayiti Empty
MessageSujet: Re: Language lesson from Ayiti   Language lesson from Ayiti EmptyLun 8 Aoû 2016 - 7:41


Pwofese DEGRAFF ak PRESTIJ li ap PWOPAJE LEVANJIL lan ,lakay VWAZEN nou yo lan JAMAYIK .

Pwoblem JAMAYIKEN yo ak LANG pa osi KORYAS konpare ak AYITI.
Pa bliye ke se lan KOMANSMAN 1960s yo ke ANGLE yo te bay JAMAYIK ENDEPANDANS.

Lan ZILE VWAZEN nou yo ,kote yo bay LANG KREYOL lan tout RESPE li merite ,se lan KIBA.


An plis ,FIDEL ak RAOUL te pase 5 AN lakay MISYE ,anvan yo te kite SANTIAGO pou yo ale LA HAVANN.
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Super Star
Super Star

Nombre de messages : 17348
Localisation : USA
Loisirs : Histoire
Date d'inscription : 24/08/2006

Feuille de personnage
Jeu de rôle: Le patriote

Language lesson from Ayiti Empty
MessageSujet: Re: Language lesson from Ayiti   Language lesson from Ayiti EmptyLun 8 Aoû 2016 - 9:23

Epitou a pwopo de KIBA.
Gen yon NEG sou SIT lan ki renmen WIKIPEDIA.
En pasan ,men sa WIKIPEDIA di ,byen ke yo pa ale lan FON FON:

Haitian Cuban

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Haitian Cuban
Haïtien Cubain
Ayisyen Kiben

Total population


Regions with significant populations

Camagüey, Ciego de Ávila, Guantanamo, Havana, Matanzas


Spanish, French, Haitian Creole


Roman Catholicism

Related ethnic groups

Haitians, Haitian Americans, Haitian Brazilian, Haitian Canadians, Haitian Chilean

A Haitian Cuban (Spanish: Haitiano-Cubano, French: Haïtien Cubain, Haitian Creole: Ayisyen Kiben) is a Cuban citizen of full or partial Haitian ancestry.

Contents  [hide]
1 Origins
2 Haitian immigrant workers (1912-1939) 2.1 Revolution
2.2 Religion
2.3 Language
2.4 Housing practices
2.5 Education
2.6 Haitian religion

3 Recent years
4 Notable Haitian Cubans
5 References
6 External links


Haitian culture and French and Haitian Creole languages, first entered Cuba with the arrival of Haitian immigrants at the start of the 19th century. Haiti was a French colony, and the final years of the 1791-1804 Haitian Revolution brought a wave of French settlers fleeing with their Haitian slaves to Cuba. They came mainly to the east, and especially Guantanamo, where the French later introduced sugar cultivation, constructed sugar refineries and developed coffee plantations.

By 1804, some 30,000 French were living in Baracoa and Maisí, the furthest eastern municipalities of the province.

Haitian immigrant workers (1912-1939)[edit]

Due to the United States occupation of Haiti, many Haitian peasants left to find work as laborers in neighboring countries like Cuba. These immigrants lived a fine line trying to maintain their Haitian culture and assimilating enough to be able to work and live in a foreign society. In 1937, over 25,000 Haitians were forcibly removed from Cuba and shipped back to Haiti.[2] This different treatment of migrant laborers is due to several factors. Cuban racists beliefs combined with economic concerns were a direct catalyst for this drastic Haitian exodus.[3]


Cubans feared a reply of the Haitian Revolution, which was not quelled by the current guerrilla warfare in Haiti by the caco forces against the Americans. Similarly, black Haitians were stereotyped as being violent and rife with crime,[4] as the subject of stereotypes wasn't uncommon in Cuba, as black Cubans are often stereotyped the same way.[5]


Haitian practice of vodou, was often mistaken for "witchcraft." [6]


The vast majority of Haitians spoke Haitian Creole, which created a language barrier forcing Haitians to remain in agricultural labor.[7]

Housing practices[edit]

Haitians lived in small communities near the sugar cane plantations, very rural and removed from populous cities.[8]


Economic restraints amongst Haitians kept education informal and contained in their small communities, as such, very few of these Haitians had anything above a basic level of Creole literacy. This enabled Haitians to keep control over the cultural values their children received.[8]

Haitian religion[edit]

Majority of Haitians are Catholic but vodou is also present behind the scenes. Vodou is decentralized and flexible. The rituals involved in vodou strengthen community ties and help the oppressed Haitians deal with their suffering.[9]

Recent years[edit]

Later, Haitians continued to come to Cuba to work as braceros (hand workers, from the Spanish word brazo, meaning "arm") in the fields cutting cane. Their living and working conditions were not much better than slavery. Although they planned to return to Haiti, most stayed on in Cuba. For years, many Haitians and their descendants in Cuba did not identify themselves as such or speak Creole. In the eastern part of the island, many Haitians continued to suffer discrimination. But according to the Fidel Castro regime, since 1959, when he took over, this discrimination has stopped.[10] After Spanish, Haitian Creole is the second most-spoken language in Cuba where over 300,000 Haitian immigrants speak it. It is recognized as a language in Cuba and a considerable number of Cubans speak it fluently. Most of these speakers have never been to Haiti and do not possess Haitian ancestry, but merely learned it in their communities. In addition to the eastern provinces, there are also communities in Ciego de Ávila and Camagüey provinces where the population still maintains Creole, their mother tongue. Classes in Creole are offered in Guantanamo, Matanzas and the City of Havana. There is a Creole-language radio program.[11]

Notable Haitian Cubans[edit]
Benito Martínez, claimed to be the world's oldest living person
Bertrand Béoty, singer (partial Cuban descent)
Farrah Boulé, rapper
Sabrina Barnett, supermodel (partial Cuban descent)


1.Jump up ^ Haiti in Cuba
2.Jump up ^ Marc C. McLeod, "Undesirable Aliens: Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism in the Comparison of Haitian and British West Indian Workers in Cuba, 1912-1939." Journal of Social History (1998): 599-614., 599
3.Jump up ^ McLeod, 603
4.Jump up ^ McLeod, 601
5.Jump up ^ "A Lesson From Cuba on Race". Retrieved 1 April 2014.
6.Jump up ^ McLeod, 602
7.Jump up ^ McLeod, 607
8.^ Jump up to: a b McLeod, 609
9.Jump up ^ McLeod, 610
10.Jump up ^ "Haiti in Cuba", AfroCubanWeb
11.Jump up ^ Haiti in Cuba

External links[edit]
"Creole Language and Culture: Part of Cuba's Cultural Patrimony", by Susan Hurlich, 21 May 1998
"Haitian Heritage In Cuba ... As Heard Through Song", National Public Radio, February 20, 2012

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