Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti
Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti
Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti
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Forum Haiti : Des Idées et des Débats sur l'Avenir d'Haiti

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 POU MOUN DUVALIER YO

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MessageSujet: POU MOUN DUVALIER YO   POU MOUN DUVALIER YO EmptySam 24 Jan 2009 - 18:59

Luckner Cambronne

'The Vampire of the Caribbean'

Friday, 6 October 2006


Independent.co.uk Web

Luckner James Cambronne,

politician: born Arcahaie, Haiti 1929; married Ina Gousse (two sons, six daughters); died Miami, Florida 24 September 2006. Luckner Cambronne, a former leader of the dreaded Tonton Macoute militiamen, was the second most feared man in Haiti during the dictatorship of François "Papa Doc" Duvalier - who himself was by far the most feared - and became widely known in Haiti and abroad as "The Vampire of the Caribbean". He was also known as "The Shark", not so much for his extortion rackets as for his penchant for custom-made sharkskin suits.

The "Vampire" title was because of his lucrative export industry - selling the blood (in the years before Aids awareness) of Haitian donors to US and other foreign hospitals at a huge profit, as well as Haitian cadavers to American medical schools. Mostly, he bought the latter from the General Hospital in the capital, Port-au-Prince, for 15 gourdes ($3) a piece, but often mourners would arrive at funeral parlours to find their loved one's coffins mysteriously empty.

Indeed, in some cases, it was suspected the exported bodies had still been alive and well when he picked his victims out for their export value. Killing came easy to the Tontons Macoute (the "bogeymen"), who terrorised even the police and the ragged Haitian army in those days. In 1962, when it emerged that some Port-au-Prince hotels had been serving the flesh of humans among their fare, Cambronne was widely named as the likely supplier.

For 18 months after the death of Papa Doc in 1971, Cambronne was considered the most powerful man in the impoverished Caribbean nation, which shares the island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic, serving as Minister for both Defence and the Interior (Home Office). He was said to have opposed Papa Doc's nomination of his gormless 19-year-old son Jean-Claude Duvalier to succeed him and later felt Jean-Claude should have named him Prime Minister.

After a contretemps between Cambronne and Jean-Claude's sister Marie-Denise and her husband, the young president, who inevitably picked up the tag "Baby Doc", managed to force his father's former right-hand-man into exile in Miami, where he remained until he died. Marie-Denise, said to have been a former lover of Cambronne, had been angered to learn that he was also once a secret lover of her and Jean-Claude's mother, Papa Doc's wife Simone Ovide Duvalier - known to French Creole-speaking Haitians as Manman ("Mama") Simone.

Cambronne was said to have made up to $10m during his role as Papa Doc's chief extortionist in the 1960s, when he was Minister of Public Works. After setting up the state-run Movement for National Reconstruction (known locally by its French initials MRN), he was supposed to raise funds for badly needed development and infrastructure projects. In fact, the money raised from the middle class and the wealthy, from businessmen and even from foreign diplomats under threat of violence, was a protection racket to bring money into Duvalier's, and his own, private coffers while the vast majority of Haitians continued to starve and live without houses, schools or roads.

Luckner James Cambronne was born the son of a Protestant preacher in Arcahaie, outside Port-au-Prince, in 1929. He was a bank teller when he met François Duvalier soon after the latter became President in 1957. Duvalier took him on, at first as little more than a bagman, but later as his right-hand man in extortion rackets and the killing of opponents as the shadowy head of the Tontons Macoute.

Cambronne got a quick feel for power and became one of the rare black faces among the whites and mulattoes in the flashy hotels, casinos and brothels of Pétionville, high above the filthy capital. Duvalier first appointed him Minister for Public Works, a recipe for disaster had it not been deliberately planned. After setting up the Movement for National Reconstruction, Cambronne extorted millions from anyone with money, though they were the minority in a land of slums and starvation. One scheme was to turn the poor hamlet of Cabaret into a modern city to be called Duvalierville, but the extorted funds never got beyond the dictator's or Cambronne's own bank accounts and the development never happened.

With the threat of sending in his feared Tonton Macoute gunmen, many of them illiterate, but terrifying in their uniform of straw hats, blue denim shirts, obligatory dark glasses and machetes, Cambronne even got away with taxing the country's widespread vodou (anglicised as voodoo) ceremonies despite the fact that vodou is a state-recognised religion in Haiti.

It was after Papa Doc Duvalier's death, when Cambronne was Minister of the Interior and of Defence, that his name, and that of his company Hemocaribien, became widely known in the United States and elsewhere as suppliers of blood to hospitals and laboratories, including some run by Dow Chemical, and of cadavers to universities and medical schools. In the era before Aids awareness, Haitian blood was highly coveted abroad. Because of the country's high rate of disease and high infant mortality rate, the blood of Haitians who made it to adulthood became extremely rich in antibodies.

Throughout his years in exile in Miami, Luckner Cambronne never denied that he remained a Duvalierist and hoped for the return of Baby Doc, in exile in France since he was overthrown in a popular uprising in 1986.

"A good Duvalierist is prepared to kill his children [for Duvalier] and expects his children to kill their parents for him," he once said.

Phil Davison
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MessageSujet: Re: POU MOUN DUVALIER YO   POU MOUN DUVALIER YO EmptySam 24 Jan 2009 - 19:13

The Fall of a Shark
Monday, Dec. 04, 1972


As chief thug and extortionist for the late François ("Papa Doc") Duvalier, Luckner Cambronne used to be the second most feared man in Haiti. After Papa Doc's death in April last year, Cambronne appeared to be on the verge of becoming No. 1. Though Jean-Claude ("Baby Doc") Duvalier, 21, succeeded his father as President for Life, it sometimes seemed in the early stages of his rule that the cunning Cambronne was actually pulling the strings of power. But last week Cambronne was headed into exile, a puppeteer apparently cut adrift by his puppet.

In the boldest move since he took office, Baby Doc dismissed Cambronne from his post as Minister of Interior and National Defense. No official reasons were given, but it seemed clear that Jean-Claude (undoubtedly encouraged by his strong-willed sister Marie-Denise) had finally decided that Cambronne, 42, had become too openly ambitious. For one thing, Cambronne had recently been pressing to be formally named Prime Minister; for another, his avarice was hindering Haiti's attempts to improve its international image and thereby its chances of getting aid from the U.S. Before news of the firing was broadcast, Jean-Claude guaranteed his former éminence grise safety if he remained in Haiti. But Cambronne, long accustomed to breaking such promises himself, took refuge instead in the Colombian embassy at Port-au-Prince. He was expected to fly later to Colombia, and then perhaps on to the U.S.

Wherever he ends up, Cambronne will not need welfare assistance. In more than a decade of plundering public funds, intimidating businessmen into making "donations" and building his own considerable business empire, he has amassed a fortune estimated as high as $10 million, an amount equal to one-third of the national budget of Haiti, and has probably secreted much of it abroad. Cambronne's commercial interests included monopoly control of Haiti's fruit exports and lumber production, a large coffee exporting firm and Ibo Tours (a travel agency that dominated Haiti's lucrative quickie-divorce market for Americans). He has also trafficked in narcotics and was the silent partner in a firm that paid poor Haitians a pittance for their blood and then resold it at a huge profit in the U.S. Last week Baby Doc terminated the blood business and moved toward nationalizing Cambronne's other enterprises.

Flaunted Wealth. The son of a poor preacher, Cambronne was a bank teller before he met Papa Doc in 1957, the year that Duvalier came to power. At first Cambronne was little more than a messenger for the cruel dictator. But within two years he was one of his favorite aides. Cambronne helped establish his credentials by setting up the National Renovation Movement, which was essentially a front for extortion. Funds would be collected from businessmen ostensibly to rebuild a slum or pave a road, but most of the money would end up in the pockets of Duvalier and his sly henchman. Soon Cambronne was flaunting his new-found wealth: he became an habitué of the most popular brothels and a high-stakes poker player. He also developed a fondness for expensive sharkskin suits, which he usually wore with welder-black sunglasses.
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After Papa Doc died, it soon became clear that there was not enough room behind the throne for both Cambronne and Marie-Denise. Cambronne first managed to get Marie-Denise and her husband Max Dominique ordered out of the country. A few months later, while the Dominiques were vacationing in Acapulco, he had Max fired from his post as Haitian ambassador to Paris. After living in exile in Paris and Washington, D.C., for several months, the persistent Marie-Denise turned up in Haiti again last September. Haitian exiles in the U.S. soon speculated that there would be another showdown and this time Marie-Denise would win. It was not long after she returned to Washington that Baby Doc announced Cambronne's dismissal.

The fall of the shark in the sharkskin suits will not automatically turn Haiti into a model democracy. But it may serve as a warning to other rapacious Duvalierists to curb their excesses; it may also encourage more foreign investment and loans for the long-undernourished Haitian economy. Now that Baby Doc seems to be firmly in power and amenable to reform, he may even release the unknown number of political prisoners ruthlessly rounded up by his father and still rotting in notorious Fort Dimanche prison.

The Fall of a Shark
By HP-Time.com Monday, Dec. 04, 1972
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MessageSujet: Re: POU MOUN DUVALIER YO   POU MOUN DUVALIER YO EmptySam 24 Jan 2009 - 19:56

On voit comment c'est monstre se faisait de l'argent, en vendant le sang d'innoncente victime
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MessageSujet: Re: POU MOUN DUVALIER YO   POU MOUN DUVALIER YO EmptyDim 25 Jan 2009 - 12:57

Padone li Luckner, Pip drunken soufri DELIRIUM DUVALIERUS!
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